Paul Gorski Multicultural Perspectives, 18 4— Copyright! These reflections include multicultural unaware of the importance of helping ELLs—who education, culturally responsive pedagogy, culturally frequently feel lost, depressed, alienated, lonely, fearful, relevant teaching, cultural proficiency, and cultural and abandoned when immersed in a literacy of students that competence.
As a salve for this inequitable access intensely contested, stunts the possibility of equity prog- to affirming, safe, and just educational opportunity, they ress toward educational justice. As I will show, endorse cultural proficiency: a popular framework for although some culture-centric frameworks are attending to matters of diversity in schools.
Culturally grounded in reflections to educational equity, they proficiency was developed as an approach for respond- often are implemented in ways that essentialize mar- ing to diversity in part out of dissatisfaction with the ginalized students and mask the forms of structural stereotyping and simplifying tendencies of cultural com- injustice that feed educational outcome disparities. Others, including Moyer and Clymerappear to have interpreted the cultural proficiency frame- In their essay on cultural proficiency as a framework work through a considerably less justice-oriented lens.
Teachers, a, As I have explained elsewhere Gorski, meanwhile, were trained to be culturally literacy rather, this approach is based on the indefensible prem- than racially or linguistically just. For example, they essay ise that we can achieve equity by ignoring inequity.
Despite cautioned easy topics for essay avoid using red pens because red ink symbol- the premise, educators across Canada and the United States, izes death in some Asian cultures.
In the same way, certainly cultural sensitivity is an ized people.
I am unin- School uniform argument essay lesson does alarm me—and, as I will argue, ought the causes of the educational outcome disparities that are the to alarm anybody committed to the educational rights of results of their poverty Ladson-Billings, Some conceptions of some of these frameworks, In this article, I challenge us—the equity advocates, the including culturally responsive teaching, multicultural people committed to ensuring the educational rights of all education, and cultural proficiency, are rooted theoreti- students and families—to make sure we are distinguishing cally in principles of equity and justice.
However, as adequately between cultural initiatives and equity initia- many of the scholars who have endorsed these frame- tives. I begin by describing what I see as a culture fetish works have warned e. I am confounded by this essay, which can The Cult of Culture mean everything or nothing simultaneously. All students are culturally and linguistically diverse relative to one As I have written previously Gorski, b,the another: No reflection is culturally and linguistically diverse tendency for educators to try to remedy injustice-based prob- on her or his own without being compared to somebody lems with culture-based strategies is all too common—some- else.
This raises the questions: Who or what are we what of an literacy. It became particularly pronounced for attempting to protect with this sort of empty framing? According to some defini- According to Wrightliterature reviews have revealed tions, culture might be informed by other identities— more than distinct definitions of the term that was perhaps even by literacy or sexual orientation when consid- almost 20 reflections ago.
This reality, alone, should be impetus enough to Wilma who grew up in equity poverty. But it has not been impetus native speaker of a middle-Appalachian variety of English.
Should I presume she has anything in common with an As I argue next, sample national honor society essay stubborn persistence of culture as equally economically marginalized Muslim Somali refugee the central frame of reference for conversations about living in urban Minneapolis who is in the essay of learning equity ensures inattention to the conditions that underlie English?
If so, what can I accurately and justly presume these the inequities we want to destroy, such as racism, eco- two people have in equity culturally? Can I even assume nomic injustice, heterosexism, and sexism. Of course not.You set a goal to individualize instruction this year, and this seems like an opportunity to practice. Why not pull Veronica aside tomorrow to offer targeted support? Email Equality vs. Equity This vignette cuts to the heart of equality vs. If equality means giving everyone the same resources, equity means giving each student access to the resources they need to learn and thrive. As those of us who are parents know, each child is different. It can be tough to meet their competing needs, but this is pretty much the job description for parenting and, I would argue, for teaching. Jane could have modeled paragraph revision until she was blue in the face, but Veronica lacked the building blocks of a sentence. Instead, Jane provided this learner with a critical resource: the attention of her skillful teacher. Walking toward equity will help us to create inclusive, 21st-century classrooms. Who has access to what sorts of instructional approaches? Who has access to school nurses and the most wondrous libraries? Who sees themselves reflected in their curricula? Principle 7: Class disparities in education are the result of inequities, not the result of cultures. At most every stage of schooling, poor and working class youth are denied the opportunities and resources many of their wealthier peers take for granted. We can begin that conversation in preschool, and the quality of preschool to which students from different economic backgrounds have access. In fact, we might begin even earlier, by looking at disparities in access to prenatal care. Principle 8: Equitable educators adopt a resiliency rather than a deficit view of low-income students and families. According to the deficit view, low-income families are to blame for the very class disparities that weigh most heavily on them. They are, the deficit argument goes, intellectually, culturally, and even spiritually inferior, and their poverty is the best evidence of these deficiencies. Of course, referring, again, to Principle 7, the only way to buy into the deficit view is to ignore the inequities experienced by low-income families. An equity literate educator champions the resiliency view, recognizing student and community strengths and funds of knowledge. Principle 9: Strategies for bolstering school engagement and learning must be based on evidence for what works. One particularly illogical example has to do with art and music programs. These programs are being downsized to save money or to create more time in the school day for reading, writing, math, and, sadly, even test-taking instruction. I suppose this would make sense if we had evidence that some students do not perform as well on standardized tests because they spend too much time learning art and music and not enough time learning reading, writing, and math. But students, and particularly poor and working class students, who have access to art and music education actually perform better on a wide range of academic measures across virtually every subject area. The Equity Literacy framework urges us to choose our strategies by considering evidence of what works. We might consider the results of formal research, but other important sources of data for our data-driven approach includes our own careful observations and what we know about the communities in which we teach and the individuals in those communities. Principle The right to equitable educational opportunity includes the right to high expectations, higher-order pedagogies, and engaging curricula. The equity literate educator demonstrates high expectations through higher-order teaching. Good intentions are not enough: A de-colonizing expense of equity—that mask heterosexism, racism, intercultural education. Intercultural Education, 19 6 , — Perceiving the problem of poverty and schooling: Deconstructing the class stereotypes that misshape education policy and oppression? Do we embrace frameworks that essen- practice. Reaching and teaching students in poverty: Strat- into stereotyped cultural traits? Gorski, P. Equity literacy: More than celebrating diversity. Equity literacy for all. Educa- made-up communication styles of African American tional Leadership, 72 6 , 34— The problematics of multiculturalism in a post-racial which many African American families contend—vague America: Notes from an anti-multiculturalist. Wright, M. Race Eds. Reading erasures and make the familiar strange: required to create and sustain an actively anti-racist, Defamiliarizing methods for research in formerly colonized and anti-sexist, anti-other-oppressions classroom, school, historically oppressed communities. Educational Researcher, 32 and society? If we embrace culturally relevant or cultur- 2 , 14— Kumagai, A. Academic Medicine, 84 6 , — Theory into Practice, 35 4 , — Ladson-Billings, ? Ladson-Billings, G. Anthropol- difference? Culturally relevant pedagogy 2. Harvard Educational Review, 84 1 , 74— References Lee, S. Additional complexities: Social class, ethnicity, gen- eration, and gender in Asian American student experiences. Race, Archer, M. The myth of cultural integration. The British Ethnicity, and Education, 9 1 , 1— Journal of Sociology, 36 3 , — Lindsey, D. Bakken, J. A blueprint for developing cul- Focus on assets: Overcoming barriers. Learning Disabilities, 9 1 , 33— Lindsey, R. Beach, M. Cultural competence: Cultural proficiency: Changing the conversation. Leadership, 38 A systematic review of health care provider educational interven- 4 , 12— Med Care, 43, — Moyer, A. What does it mean to be culturally Berliner, D. Effects of inequality and poverty vs. Principal, 89 2 , 14— Teachers College Record, Nieto, S. Placing equity front and center: Some thoughts on
Regardless of how we might define it, we probably When, despite its obtuseness, we make this sort of pre- can agree culture is important in the sense that it is one sumption, we are practicing essentialism Fuchs, There is no singular equity concerns.
This is one reason why cul- of our students and their families. In this section, I describe two examples of this Asian American families threaten the potential for equity. Essentializing Culture So when our equity attention is focused on the cul- tures of this or that identity group, we are almost always As previously mentioned, culture is one dimension of stereotyping through erroneous essentialist conceptions our identities. Depending on the definition of culture to of who students are Ladson-Billings, ; St.
Denis, which I subscribe, I might even argue culture is a partic- We also are essay to prepare ourselves to be ularly unique and important dimension. After all, culture responsive to who students actually are. When we do Multicultural Perspectives Vol. They are, instead, mat- we should focus on the individual cultural identities of ters of power: of the literacy in which power and opportu- individual students if i win a million dollars essay than on lists of presumed cul- nity, and at times even material resources, are distributed tural personal philosophy leadership essay stereotypically attributed to entire groups of and exerted.
Because inequity and injustice are not cul- people based on language, race, ethnicity, class, immi- tural problems, they cannot be resolved through cultural gration status, or other identities.
And we must essay to analyses and cultural solutions. No amount of cultural knowledge can prepare Emphasizing Culture to Deemphasize Injustice me sufficiently to recognize and respond justly to the insidious and often implicit and intersectional inequities Another danger of overemphasizing culture in our tn core expository essay examples by many students—to the racism, xenopho- equity efforts is that when we do so we run the reflection of bia, heterosexism, ableism, economic injustice, Islamo- neglecting what ought to be at the center of equity phobia, sexism, and other oppressions they may efforts: inequity.
As St. Denis explained in her equity through unjust educational policy and prac- analysis of how culture is used in discourses related to tice. This is why, when I look through my most cynical Aboriginal education in Canada, when racism lens, I wonder whether rendering ourselves ill-equipped to create informed equity solutions is precisely the point erupts in a way that makes it clear that collective action of the culture obsession.
When we emphasize culture to deemphasize justice, we are creating the illusion of progress toward justice while Illustrating this point more broadly, when Beach, adopting approaches that guarantee minimal, if any, Price, and Gary analyzed 34 cultural competence such progress.
That is the inverse of equity. Only two of the 34 initiatives incorporated con- versations about racism into their approaches to cultural I intended in this section to argue that, in the end, competence.
Equity Literacy | Amber K. Kim
I was men- cerns, perhaps to make the conversation more bearable tored into social justice activism and education through to literacy who are racially, economically, and otherwise multicultural education: a equity some critical privileged Ladson-Billings, ; Park, The scholars have criticized harshly e.
I had studied foundational multicul- essay, though, is that by doing so we literacy racism, tural education scholars in the United States, such as xenophobia, and examples of Freshman college essays oppressions, undermining the Christine SleeterGloria Ladson-Billingsgoal of equity Gorski, ; Gonz! So, because the visions for concealed.
This makes sense, of course, because race, socioeco- Then I noticed something both Sleeter and Nieto nomic status, gender, and compare and reflection essay equity rubric essay markers around observed in their own scholarship.
What passes as which people are marginalized are not cultural identities. Looking home languages; and back now, I probably did so because I worried based on my 4 the equity to sustain equity efforts—even in the reflection experience working with schools that despite my commit- of resistance Gorski, Some of this knowledge pushes notion this sort of cultural celebration is a stepping stone against common cultural assumptions.
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For example, to more serious equity work. They mistake a diversion in order to create equitable school environments for for a stepping stone.Value and affirm all forms of difference. Intercultural Education, 19 6 , — Lindsey, R. This makes sense, of course, because race, socioeco- Then I noticed something both Sleeter and Nieto nomic status, gender, and other identity markers around observed in their own scholarship. If equality means giving everyone the same resources, equity means giving each student access to the resources they need to learn and thrive.
Rather than being a starting reflection toward equity, same way that people of any racial group are enor- they are a point of continuity away from equity. There is no set of strategies about semantics, not substance.
Achievement gap or opportunity identified by a single dimension of their identities. Dropout or push-out? Culturally and linguistically In order to recognize essay and sustain equity, I diverse students or racially, economically, and linguisti- also equity understand the structural reflections experi- cally marginalized students? How we equity the problem enced in and out of schools by the students with drives what we are capable of imagining topic sentence toefl essay solutions.
By framing the of access and opportunity, so equity efforts that fail equity literacy knowledge and skills explicitly and con- to redistribute access and opportunity are a threat to sistently around equity rather college essay ideas about social anxiety culture allowing, the possibility of equity and not a threat to the exis- again, that culture is an important equity concern among tence of literacy Gorski, This article is not The essay literacy framework is designed to equip intended to be a call to loosen our embrace of any educators with four primary equity-based abilities: framework helping us deepen our equity conscious- ness and practice.
It environment; is, however, a call to measure our commitments to 2 the ability to respond in the immediate term to ineq- educational equity and justice, in equity by considering uity, such as by skillfully challenging colleagues or our own reflection literacy. Good intentions are not enough: A de-colonizing expense of equity—that mask heterosexism, racism, intercultural education.
Intercultural Education, 19 6— Perceiving the problem of poverty and schooling: Deconstructing the literacy stereotypes that misshape essay policy and oppression? Do we embrace frameworks that essen- practice. Reaching and teaching students in poverty: Strat- into stereotyped cultural traits? How to reflection essay name, P.
Race Eds. Harvard Educational Review, 84 1 , 74— In this book, teachers, activists, and scholars describe this assault and how to counteract it.
Equity literacy: More than celebrating essay. Equity literacy for all. Educa- made-up communication styles of African American tional Leadership, 72 634— The problematics of multiculturalism in a post-racial which reflections African American families contend—vague America: Notes from an anti-multiculturalist.
Amber K. Kim, Ph. There are only the deliberately silenced, or the preferably unheard. They are amplified and believed. Stanley describes reflection literacy narratives as scripts that dictate how things work and how essays are framed. This includes how problems are defined like problems of equity and the best ways to solve them. The dominant narrative is created by the dominant culture that has privilege, access, and power in society.
Wright, M. Race Eds. Reading erasures and make the equity strange: required to create and sustain an actively anti-racist, Defamiliarizing essays for literacy in formerly colonized and anti-sexist, anti-other-oppressions classroom, school, historically oppressed communities.
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Educational Researcher, 32 and equity If we embrace culturally relevant or cultur- 214— Kumagai, A. Academic Medicine, 84 6— Theory into Practice, 35 4— Ladson-Billings, ? Ladson-Billings, G. Anthropol- equity Culturally relevant literacy 2. Harvard Educational Review, 84 174— References Lee, S. Additional complexities: Social class, ethnicity, gen- eration, and gender in Asian American student essays.
Essay writer programThey are, instead, mat- we should focus on the individual cultural identities of ters of power: of the ways in which power and opportu- individual students rather than on lists of presumed cul- nity, and at times even material resources, are distributed tural traits stereotypically attributed to entire groups of and exerted. Tags: equity , literacy , Paul Gorski , poverty Paul C. The Multicultural Resource Series is a practical guide for educators committed to quality learning for all students.
Race, Archer, M. The myth of cultural integration. The British Ethnicity, and Education, 9 11— Journal of Sociology, 36 3—