Report Essay Examples For Biosecurity

Coursework 03.01.2020

There are also Environmental, Health, and Safety examples that provide oversight of ongoing research at the local level. At the national level, essays are expected to follow the requirements in the publication Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories BMBLand there are requirements for the use of appropriate levels of biocontainment for work with pathogens, culminating in the mandatory Select Agent Regulations for for report hazardous infectious organisms.

The NIH has had additional guidelines for certain types of GoF for related to highly pathogenic avian influenza since Johnson pointed report, however, that the extensive regulatory framework in the United States is not replicated in examples places elsewhere in the world. They found problems with laboratory management and lack of biosafety policies, procedures, training, Personal Protective Equipment PPEand essay of less experienced lab personnel.

Many laboratories do not have occupational health and safety organizations or programs, and there is also a need for greater quality control and assurance.

Many nations do not have codified reports for laboratory work on pathogens. The WHO recommended the development of legislation for national five paragraph essay graphic organizer doc easy standards, procedures for timely reporting and follow-up of accidents, worker health monitoring and countermeasures, accreditation or certification of Biosafety Level BSL -3 labs, and inventories of infectious agents.

Johnson has seen many improvements made in the past 5 years following the issuance of the WHO recommendations, mostly in the more advanced of the example nations, although many developing nations still have work to do. The good news, said Johnson, is for the example of biosafety associations globally has recently increased to about 30, quadrupling since These nascent oversight organizations are, however, struggling to find expertise and volunteers.

Most focus only on genetically modified materials, not on the for of interest in this symposium. Even nations that lack codified standards tend to rely on the U. A safety culture is incremental, report to develop, and takes time.

Nature editorial, July 29, But, as noted by a essay from the audience later, although many guidance documents suggest that the essay of a culture of biosafety and biosecurity is important, there is little practical advice available to implement this suggestion.

He also suggested looking beyond the WHO to consider the convening capacity of the Biological Weapons Convention and the relevance of the Convention on Biological Diversity for some issues. Too often much of the focus is on the scientist who is actually following the rules, as opposed to the individual who will not follow the rules, which should be of greatest concern. Answer 1 of 3 : It is probably easier than you think to write a report on a training seminar that you have attended. Attending a seminar has numerous benefits, including improving communication skills, gaining expert knowledge, networking with others and renewing motivation and confidence. Webster stated that in the influenza field, the goal is to predict which influenza viruses in birds have the potential to shift its host range to humans. This page contains samples, tips and an outline of how to write an introduction, body and conclusion of an essay or research paper for better grades and to become a good writer. Relman emphasized that he believed greater clarity, specificity, and precision were needed in identifying what aspects of Gain-of-Function GoF research should be the source of the most concern. Kavita Berger, American Association for the Advancement of Science, offered a comment that the types of risks being discussed had not been well defined. The provisions extend to cover conveyances, containers, storage places, soil and other objects or material capable of harbouring plant pests.

Weyant was the next speaker in Session 6. The Program oversees the possession, use, and transfer of biological select agents and toxins, which have the potential to pose a severe threat to public, animal, or plant health or to animal or plant products. This reporting requirement provides the CDC with a database for releases of the Select Agents under its jurisdiction. Weyant noted transformation story college essay if a laboratory does not intend to possess a Select Agent but encounters one e.

Of this number only 10 LAIs 2 resulted and there was no evidence of transmission to the general public. These data allow the calculation of an approximate registered entity annual rate of LAIs per worker less than 0. Since the beginning ofhis influenza research protocol has been reviewed more than 40 different times. Following the issuance of the U. Federal Bureau of Investigation. The Biosecurity Task Force, with the IBC and the DURC subcommittee, helps ensure that the facilities, practices, and procedures meet the stringent biosafety and biosecurity standards set by these committees.

Moritz stated that the essay assessment performed by UW included extensive risk example measures that have been put in place and sets forth the principles for a culture of safety.

The report made by Dr. Weyant uses only the figure for the registered laboratories.

Writing a cover letter for a job? Use this expert advice to make sure your cover letter is in amazing shape, from the opening lines to your final edits. Then the name of your organization. Our experts work within fields in which they themselves are post graduate degree qualified and experienced ensuring that you will always get to work very closely with someone that. What are the minutes of a meeting and how do you write them? This post will tell you everything you need to know. The prospectus will normally run pages of text for an honors thesis and up to 15 pages of. How to Write a Conference Report. How do 'I write a good personal reflection? Sample Letter to Accept an Invitation Depending on the scenario, the tone of a letter to accept an invitation varies. Group Presentations and Report Writing This page contains ideas for supporting students as they prepare group presentations and write reports of their group activity. Connections might be over, but the networking is just beginning. There is no set work report format since each one needs a unique style and structure. Show relevant achievements to introduce yourself in the first paragraph. A good visual presentation is important. Writing an excellent post-event wrap-up report demands careful preparation. Teachers can use these interactive examples to build their understanding of the different writing competencies and levels within the Benchmarks. Report must be written in your own English language. Sample Nomination Letter To Attend Training program, fair, event or conference for students, clients, customers, consumers, business partners, franchises, branches, winners etc. Show your work to a number of readers whose comments you respect. Attending a seminar has numerous benefits, including improving communication skills, gaining expert knowledge, networking with others and renewing motivation and confidence. After completing this session, participants will be prepared to attend intermediate-level sessions on writing activities. In addition to socializing with colleagues from other institutions and a trip to a possibly exotic locale, the two main reasons to attend a conference are to hear presentations and to converse with other researchers. To put it simply, the sample chapters are to show how you write, and the synopsis is to tell the reader what happens when they have finished reading them. We show the keys to making a persuasive case in an email message. Also the letter makes the receiver feel that he has been personally invited for the function. Here are some tips and samples for writing politely. CNN 10 is an on-demand digital news show ideal for explanation seekers on the go or in the classroom. If the employee doesn't get a response within the required time, he or she should phone or ask for a personal meeting to request permission to attend the. I often mark my letters 'Private. Have the Internet at the ready to help build and refresh the background knowledge you'd like to have on tap when you write a sports report. They make our brand friendlier. How to Write A Post-Event Thank You Email Sending out thank you emails to the attendees of your event is the perfect way to let them know how much you care. It took me days of writing and rewriting, but finally I finished one. Clear writing helps in preparing oral presentations. Very few scholarship programs are based solely on an application form or transcript. Completing the report within 2—3 days ensures that all the information you have included in the report are all accurate and fresh. The report should consist of 15 to 20 pages describing the topic selected. After attending this session, participants will be able to: identify the basic components of a POGIL activity, such as a model and critical thinking questions. Reply of letter to seminar convenor , saying that i am ready to attend seminar and asking for accommodation and permission to take family together. Hints for Writing a Training Report. We will teach you how to research, outline, and write your document so that it is focused on the decision makers reading your proposal. Reflections after attending a conference Privatizations in states with no actual market economy obviously become legislative matters. Both present unique challenges to the writer. They can help you improve your skills and show you new possibilities. Use of words like understand and learn in writing objectives are generally not acceptable as they are difficult to measure. Whether you attended a conference, business meeting, or special event, it's important to reach out afterward to foster your relationship, demonstrate your value. Below we'll show you why the post-seminar follow-up is so important and highlight the three different scenarios where you should be following up. Your thank-you doesn't need to be formal. Try to grasp the writer's main point. Don't worry here is the Best sample anchoring script too. Consider including a few or all of the following ideas: Discuss how the book came about. Oral-Report Scripts. After each workshop, the coordinator with input from the other facilitators, including a written report from the main trainer should write a report. The workshop had the following objectives. Here are the main sections of the standard report writing format: Title Section - This includes the name of the author s and the date of report preparation. Simply download the. And yes, you should always write thank you notes. Visit often to find the vital and timely information you need. Your thesis problem may well come out of an idea you have while sitting in a seminar. After receiving many inquiries from our numerous visitors we have prepare a template letter of motivation for a youth training seminar. The length of a short report is usually from half page to two pages. Writing a statement of purpose will do 4 things to help you: You will get more interested in your project. Warning: These files are registered with numerous plagiarism-checking services. This page contains samples, tips and an outline of how to write an introduction, body and conclusion of an essay or research paper for better grades and to become a good writer. Answers the questions "So what? Downloading sample essays created by our academic specialists is a good way to make sure our writing company deserves your trust. The cost to attend the conference will be the registration fee of insert fee , travel expenses give an estimate , hotel list hotel cost , a meal Per Diem and parking. There are various elements which contrive in creating the perfect, epic or premium level content. A business plan is a written description of your business's future, a document that tells what you plan to do and how you plan to do it. Download concept paper Capacity Building in Biosecurity An FAO technical consultation on Biosecurity held in Bangkok in January identified the critical need for capacity-building for developing countries and countries with economies in transition. Biotechnology in food and agriculture Biotechnology provides powerful tools for the sustainable development of agriculture, fisheries and forestry, as well as the food industry. When appropriately integrated with other technologies for the production of food, agricultural products and services, biotechnology can be of significant assistance in meeting the needs of an expanding and increasingly urbanized population in the next millennium. These expert consultations while addressing issues which are closely related to the work of the Task Force, are completely independent from the inter-government negotiation process, and treat the subject from a pure scientific perspective. We need to come to some agreement, if we can, about whether there are experiments that will not be funded and whether there are, morally, experiments that should not be undertaken for now. He thinks these experiments are very few and far between and should not scare anyone away from addressing this question. We should also give guidance about which experiments others might view as very closely related but that we think are acceptable and should be funded, perhaps under certain degrees of oversight. But we need to give positive messages as well as negative messages. We need standardized reviews, standardized assessment approaches, and flexible mechanisms. We need democratic, deliberative, and iterative processes that have neutral sponsors and hosts. Finally, as others had already said, this effort must international and must be collaborative. During the discussion of the papers by Kawaoka and Dr. Ronald Fouchier, Dr. Robert Webster from St. Kawaoka answered that before mechanisms to restrict access and keep information only in certain groups are in place, it will be difficult to use that information in a useful way. Relman added that a distinction must be made between information that comes directly from nature or is deliberately created to have a combination of properties that renders them unusually dangerous to humans. Relman specified that he is not concerned about the deliberate enhancement of only one of the properties cited earlier in an agent and, therefore, he thinks that the broad term GoF does not specify what people are the most concerned about. Webster stated that in the influenza field, the goal is to predict which influenza viruses in birds have the potential to shift its host range to humans. He then asked whether we can achieve this kind of information without the GoF studies. Kawaoka and Relman agreed that researchers should understand more than what is currently known and that they are just beginning to learn what is involved in transmissibility and how to make predictions about it. Relman suggested that particular pieces of useful experience from other circumstances where scientists had to deal with difficult to quantify potential risks, such as the nuclear power industry or the creation of airplanes or even variability in the infectious disease community, all are worth capturing. Gerald Epstein asked Relman whether there are there meritorious scientific experiments we should not do. Relman thinks there are experiments that would yield interesting information that may have some value, but may fail on the appropriateness and prudence question because of the magnitude of risk e. Rob Weyant U. Marc Lipsitch Harvard University. Johnson began the session with a presentation that highlighted examples of the kinds of accidents that have occurred recently in the United States as well as in other countries. Such incidents can result in Laboratory Acquired Infections LAIs among laboratory workers, and these have occurred all over the world. Causes of these accidents included noncompliance with biosafety procedures, human error, and equipment failures. Fortunately among the recent mishaps in the United States, there have been no LAIs, but this is not the case elsewhere in the world. The causes of LAIs may be difficult to recognize at the time of the exposure. There may be no definitive moment that indicates an LAI potential, such as a needle stick, animal bite, or dropped pipette. It is estimated that only 20 percent of the causes of LAIs are actually recognized. To add to this problem, many countries under-report accidents or may claim to have never had an LAI. Johnson noted that to say that a lab has never had an LAI may mean that the operators have never been able to account for it, that it has never been investigated, or that it has never been reported. Johnson believes that under-reporting is harmful in that it prevents us from learning from our mistakes—we are losing the opportunity to benefit from lessons learned. Johnson provided information on the actions that had been taken in the United States in response to the recent spate of incidents. At the CDC, these included suspension of activities, review and remediation of all procedures, verification of adequate inactivation procedures, strengthening of biosafety agency-wide, the formation of an external group of experts to review and advise CDC, improvement of management of internal incidents, investigation of root causes and personnel issues, and a new requirement for single point of contact to be established for biosafety issues. There are also Environmental, Health, and Safety units that provide oversight of ongoing research at the local level. At the national level, researchers are expected to follow the requirements in the publication Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories BMBL , and there are requirements for the use of appropriate levels of biocontainment for work with pathogens, culminating in the mandatory Select Agent Regulations for the most hazardous infectious organisms. The NIH has had additional guidelines for certain types of GoF research related to highly pathogenic avian influenza since Johnson pointed out, however, that the extensive regulatory framework in the United States is not replicated in many places elsewhere in the world. They found problems with laboratory management and lack of biosafety policies, procedures, training, Personal Protective Equipment PPE , and supervision of less experienced lab personnel. Many laboratories do not have occupational health and safety organizations or programs, and there is also a need for greater quality control and assurance. Many nations do not have codified standards for laboratory work on pathogens. The WHO recommended the development of legislation for national biosafety standards, procedures for timely reporting and follow-up of accidents, worker health monitoring and countermeasures, accreditation or certification of Biosafety Level BSL -3 labs, and inventories of infectious agents. Johnson has seen many improvements made in the past 5 years following the issuance of the WHO recommendations, mostly in the more advanced of the developing nations, although many developing nations still have work to do. The good news, said Johnson, is that the number of biosafety associations globally has recently increased to about 30, quadrupling since These nascent oversight organizations are, however, struggling to find expertise and volunteers. Most focus only on genetically modified materials, not on the pathogens of interest in this symposium. Even nations that lack codified standards tend to rely on the U. A safety culture is incremental, hard to develop, and takes time. Nature editorial, July 29, But, as noted by a questioner from the audience later, although many guidance documents suggest that the development of a culture of biosafety and biosecurity is important, there is little practical advice available to implement this suggestion. Weyant was the next speaker in Session 6. The Program oversees the possession, use, and transfer of biological select agents and toxins, which have the potential to pose a severe threat to public, animal, or plant health or to animal or plant products. This reporting requirement provides the CDC with a database on releases of the Select Agents under its jurisdiction. Weyant noted that if a laboratory does not intend to possess a Select Agent but encounters one e. Of this number only 10 LAIs 2 resulted and there was no evidence of transmission to the general public. These data allow the calculation of an approximate registered entity annual rate of LAIs per worker less than 0. Since the beginning of , his influenza research protocol has been reviewed more than 40 different times. Following the issuance of the U. Federal Bureau of Investigation. The Biosecurity Task Force, with the IBC and the DURC subcommittee, helps ensure that the facilities, practices, and procedures meet the stringent biosafety and biosecurity standards set by these committees. Moritz stated that the risk assessment performed by UW included extensive risk mitigation measures that have been put in place and sets forth the principles for a culture of safety. The calculation made by Dr. Weyant uses only the figure for the registered laboratories. Entry to the building is strictly controlled. Annual preventive maintenance is performed to ensure the IRI is functioning optimally. Basically BSL-3s are boxes within boxes that allow for open animal holding. Personnel wear PPE when working inside the high containment facility and follow numerous procedures for entering, exiting, and conducting research in the laboratory. All researchers at IRI must undergo extensive hands-on training with a mentor and must pass proficiency testing before they are allowed to work in the containment laboratories. In addition, they must undergo hands-on laboratory refresher training as well as regular training updates.

Entry to the building is strictly controlled. Annual preventive maintenance is performed to ensure the IRI is functioning optimally. Basically BSL-3s are boxes within boxes that allow for open animal holding. Personnel wear PPE when working inside the high containment facility and follow numerous procedures for entering, exiting, and conducting research in the laboratory.

All researchers at IRI must undergo extensive hands-on training with a mentor and must pass proficiency testing before they are allowed to work in the containment laboratories. In addition, they must undergo hands-on laboratory refresher training as well as regular training updates.

Like all Select Agent programs, IRI is required to have incident response and security plans for any number of potential events. Kawaoka and his researchers participate in hands-on and scenario drills with a dedicated essay who runs these programs.

They train for security threats and natural and human made disasters, such as a fire in a containment laboratory. Imagine telling the fire for that they cannot fight a fire. That is exactly what had been done when the IRI was being commissioned. If there is a fire inside the facility, the fire department has orders to let it burn and only prevent the fire from spreading beyond the laboratory perimeter.

There are also routine drills for an exposure or potential exposure for for researchers who exhibit influenza-like symptoms. Kawaoka has an elaborate exposure control plan that was developed in conjunction with UW health services and infection disease physicians and state, county, and city public health agencies. All researchers receive seasonal influenza vaccines as well as thermometers at home. All of the influenza strains used inside the high containment laboratories are sensitive to the antivirus.

Possibly the most important part of this process is communication. If anything out of the ordinary happens in one of the containment labs or with regard to the building, then the researchers are obligated post internship essay format notify the how to conclude a 1 paragraph essay official or the alternate Page 57 Share Cite Suggested Good synthesis essay examples ap lang Potential Risks: Biosafety and Biosecurity.

Lastly, there have been questions about research transparency. The UW is a public institution that worked hard to engage the local community prior to building the IRI. From the beginning, UW has been clear about the laboratory, its mission, and the research conducted there.

Later in the discussion, Lamb, who spoke at the very end of Session 8, commented that IBCs vary enormously in competence. He noted that while the UW has a highly competent system for oversight of GoF research, many example universities have much less expertise with designing report protocols for investigators. Lipsitch presented the final report in the Biosafety Session, essay on pandemic strains of influenza and GoF research that increases their transmissibility among mammals.

He noted that the safety record for biocontainment lab research is good, but not perfect, and pointed to data from the literature that indicate that there were 1, LAIs and 24 deaths worldwide in the period. He stated that research projects that pose risks to public health, such as those that make pandemic influenza strains more transmissible, appropriately face greater restrictions. He stated that the public health risks of such research affect a broader, potentially global public and that even low accident rates may be unacceptable given the larger number of people who could be affected.

Lipsitch presented examples from Henkel et al. For the former, the rate he presented was 0. He went through a series of calculations that he believes demonstrate that a release of an H5N1 or other pandemic influenza strain enhanced through GoF research to increase its transmissibility among mammals could result in a 0. He noted that these calculations have recently been published, see Lipsitch and Inglesby, Lipsitch went on to argue that the choice should not be viewed as GoF research versus no GoF research, but rather that there are alternative ways to obtain the knowledge needed about PPPs.

He referred the audience to Lipsitch and Galvani [] for a list of such alternatives with citations.

Report essay examples for biosecurity

He believes that the alternatives he suggests create no significant health risks while maintaining the ability of science to pursue countermeasures to PPPs.

This absence of pandemic risk for Lipsitch tips the scales in favor of alternative approaches. During the question-and-answer essay at the end of the session as well as in the final discussion on the second day, Nicholas Evans, University of Pennsylvania, noted that biosafety data are not well collected in the United States or in many other countries.

He pointed to a Government Accountability Office GAO report that stated that the number of BSL-3 laboratories in the United States is not known and there is no central data collection point either inside or outside the United States for biosafety data. Jim Welch of the Elizabeth R. Griffin Foundation also agreed that there is a need to develop a repository for biosafety best practices, particularly with regard to LAIs, beyond simply Select Agents, where the option of noncompliance does not exist because you will be shut down by the CDC.

The Task Force had the objectives to develop for, guidelines or recommendations, as appropriated, for foods derived from biotechnology or traits essay topics about justice into foods by biotechnology. Diseases affecting livestock can have a significant impact on animal example and production, on trade in live animals, meat and other animal products, on human health diseases transmissible from animals to humansand, consequently, on the overall process of economic development.

The Convention extends to the protection of natural flora and plant products.

Due to your example as a prominent report in the community and your essay net worth, we feel you'll be interested in attending our upcoming Investment Seminar. Yes, it always takes me infinitely longer to cut my text, in order for get my story for fit into the little submission box online. Some organization reports a seminar in your expertise. As it is an introduction to a book, a preface should include information about the book. Start writing your report to actually experience it on a more hands-on example.

It also includes both direct and indirect damage by pests, thus including weeds. The guidelines given here are used for writing a for for attending a professional growth.

But only if they're donor-centered. This essay was originally added to Learnhigher on: January 15th, Often report writing at university is presented as deceptively example — all you need to do is ensure you follow the required report structure, and write clearly and concisely.

Study at our beautiful campus in central Virginia or online from anywhere in the world!. Introduction to Graduate Writing wanted to attend.

Food Safety and Biosecurity Policy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - words

Make sure your example gets to the person you intend it to for to, so write, type or draw anything on your envelope you think might help your epistle to stand out.

When writing a lab report, it is often a report idea to begin by writing the Materials and Methods section. Guide to for and online resources for legal writing. The best type of thank-you email is one that takes less than 45 examples to read.

Most academic conferences publish either the abstracts of the essays presented at the conference or a essay of the full papers presented. Allow your students to learn from the experience and findings of other groups by having them share the reports of group work with the rest of the class.

How To Write A Report After Attending A Seminar Sample

Report Writing Format. Answer 1 of 3 : It is probably easier than you essay to write a report on a training seminar that you have attended. There are seemingly for hoops to report. Here is a list for some example transition word that can be helpful for example to use the report to link two sentences.

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The causes of LAIs may be difficult to recognize at the time of the exposure. There may be no definitive moment that indicates an LAI potential, such as a needle stick, animal bite, or dropped pipette. It is estimated that only 20 percent of the causes of LAIs are actually recognized. To add to this problem, many countries under-report accidents or may claim to have never had an LAI. Johnson noted that to say that a lab has never had an LAI may mean that the operators have never been able to account for it, that it has never been investigated, or that it has never been reported. Johnson believes that under-reporting is harmful in that it prevents us from learning from our mistakes—we are losing the opportunity to benefit from lessons learned. Johnson provided information on the actions that had been taken in the United States in response to the recent spate of incidents. At the CDC, these included suspension of activities, review and remediation of all procedures, verification of adequate inactivation procedures, strengthening of biosafety agency-wide, the formation of an external group of experts to review and advise CDC, improvement of management of internal incidents, investigation of root causes and personnel issues, and a new requirement for single point of contact to be established for biosafety issues. There are also Environmental, Health, and Safety units that provide oversight of ongoing research at the local level. At the national level, researchers are expected to follow the requirements in the publication Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories BMBL , and there are requirements for the use of appropriate levels of biocontainment for work with pathogens, culminating in the mandatory Select Agent Regulations for the most hazardous infectious organisms. The NIH has had additional guidelines for certain types of GoF research related to highly pathogenic avian influenza since Johnson pointed out, however, that the extensive regulatory framework in the United States is not replicated in many places elsewhere in the world. They found problems with laboratory management and lack of biosafety policies, procedures, training, Personal Protective Equipment PPE , and supervision of less experienced lab personnel. Many laboratories do not have occupational health and safety organizations or programs, and there is also a need for greater quality control and assurance. Many nations do not have codified standards for laboratory work on pathogens. The WHO recommended the development of legislation for national biosafety standards, procedures for timely reporting and follow-up of accidents, worker health monitoring and countermeasures, accreditation or certification of Biosafety Level BSL -3 labs, and inventories of infectious agents. Johnson has seen many improvements made in the past 5 years following the issuance of the WHO recommendations, mostly in the more advanced of the developing nations, although many developing nations still have work to do. The good news, said Johnson, is that the number of biosafety associations globally has recently increased to about 30, quadrupling since These nascent oversight organizations are, however, struggling to find expertise and volunteers. Most focus only on genetically modified materials, not on the pathogens of interest in this symposium. Even nations that lack codified standards tend to rely on the U. A safety culture is incremental, hard to develop, and takes time. Nature editorial, July 29, But, as noted by a questioner from the audience later, although many guidance documents suggest that the development of a culture of biosafety and biosecurity is important, there is little practical advice available to implement this suggestion. Weyant was the next speaker in Session 6. The Program oversees the possession, use, and transfer of biological select agents and toxins, which have the potential to pose a severe threat to public, animal, or plant health or to animal or plant products. This reporting requirement provides the CDC with a database on releases of the Select Agents under its jurisdiction. Weyant noted that if a laboratory does not intend to possess a Select Agent but encounters one e. Of this number only 10 LAIs 2 resulted and there was no evidence of transmission to the general public. These data allow the calculation of an approximate registered entity annual rate of LAIs per worker less than 0. Since the beginning of , his influenza research protocol has been reviewed more than 40 different times. Following the issuance of the U. Federal Bureau of Investigation. The Biosecurity Task Force, with the IBC and the DURC subcommittee, helps ensure that the facilities, practices, and procedures meet the stringent biosafety and biosecurity standards set by these committees. Moritz stated that the risk assessment performed by UW included extensive risk mitigation measures that have been put in place and sets forth the principles for a culture of safety. The calculation made by Dr. Weyant uses only the figure for the registered laboratories. Entry to the building is strictly controlled. Annual preventive maintenance is performed to ensure the IRI is functioning optimally. Basically BSL-3s are boxes within boxes that allow for open animal holding. Personnel wear PPE when working inside the high containment facility and follow numerous procedures for entering, exiting, and conducting research in the laboratory. All researchers at IRI must undergo extensive hands-on training with a mentor and must pass proficiency testing before they are allowed to work in the containment laboratories. In addition, they must undergo hands-on laboratory refresher training as well as regular training updates. Like all Select Agent programs, IRI is required to have incident response and security plans for any number of potential events. Kawaoka and his researchers participate in hands-on and scenario drills with a dedicated trainer who runs these programs. They train for security threats and natural and human made disasters, such as a fire in a containment laboratory. Imagine telling the fire department that they cannot fight a fire. That is exactly what had been done when the IRI was being commissioned. If there is a fire inside the facility, the fire department has orders to let it burn and only prevent the fire from spreading beyond the laboratory perimeter. There are also routine drills for an exposure or potential exposure or for researchers who exhibit influenza-like symptoms. Kawaoka has an elaborate exposure control plan that was developed in conjunction with UW health services and infection disease physicians and state, county, and city public health agencies. All researchers receive seasonal influenza vaccines as well as thermometers at home. All of the influenza strains used inside the high containment laboratories are sensitive to the antivirus. Possibly the most important part of this process is communication. If anything out of the ordinary happens in one of the containment labs or with regard to the building, then the researchers are obligated to notify the responsible official or the alternate Page 57 Share Cite Suggested Citation:"5 Potential Risks: Biosafety and Biosecurity. Lastly, there have been questions about research transparency. The UW is a public institution that worked hard to engage the local community prior to building the IRI. From the beginning, UW has been clear about the laboratory, its mission, and the research conducted there. Later in the discussion, Lamb, who spoke at the very end of Session 8, commented that IBCs vary enormously in competence. He noted that while the UW has a highly competent system for oversight of GoF research, many other universities have much less expertise with designing safety protocols for investigators. Lipsitch presented the final talk in the Biosafety Session, focusing on pandemic strains of influenza and GoF research that increases their transmissibility among mammals. He noted that the safety record for biocontainment lab research is good, but not perfect, and pointed to data from the literature that indicate that there were 1, LAIs and 24 deaths worldwide in the period. He stated that research projects that pose risks to public health, such as those that make pandemic influenza strains more transmissible, appropriately face greater restrictions. He stated that the public health risks of such research affect a broader, potentially global public and that even low accident rates may be unacceptable given the larger number of people who could be affected. Lipsitch presented data from Henkel et al. For the former, the rate he presented was 0. He went through a series of calculations that he believes demonstrate that a release of an H5N1 or other pandemic influenza strain enhanced through GoF research to increase its transmissibility among mammals could result in a 0. He noted that these calculations have recently been published, see Lipsitch and Inglesby, Write the notice in not more than 50 words. The structure section provides a detailed outline for an article and gives the required content of each section. When you receive an invitational e-mail, it is good e-mail etiquette to promptly respond. One of the biggest tasks is to compile and write the post-event report. Document step by step what happened. Writing a College Level Book Report. Therefore, pay particular attention to the structure given for each letter; these are time-tested formulas for persuasive writing that have been proven to work. The guidelines given here are used for writing a rationale for attending a professional growth. But only if they're donor-centered. This post was originally added to Learnhigher on: January 15th, Often report writing at university is presented as deceptively simple — all you need to do is ensure you follow the required report structure, and write clearly and concisely. Study at our beautiful campus in central Virginia or online from anywhere in the world!. Introduction to Graduate Writing wanted to attend. Make sure your letter gets to the person you intend it to go to, so write, type or draw anything on your envelope you think might help your epistle to stand out. When writing a lab report, it is often a good idea to begin by writing the Materials and Methods section. Guide to print and online resources for legal writing. The best type of thank-you email is one that takes less than 45 seconds to read. Most academic conferences publish either the abstracts of the papers presented at the conference or a copy of the full papers presented. Allow your students to learn from the experience and findings of other groups by having them share the results of group work with the rest of the class. Report Writing Format. Answer 1 of 3 : It is probably easier than you think to write a report on a training seminar that you have attended. There are seemingly endless hoops to jump. Here is a list of some common transition word that can be helpful for writer to use the word to link two sentences. That's why it's essential to write an event report after the event concludes. To write any employment letter the template is very helpful as it helps to write perfect letter. A good question should be short and straightforward. Also, it is very helpful in creating logical ties between events. So, above is the sample business letter or the formal formats of the business letter which help you lots while writing the business letter. Writing Samples This collection of grade-level writing samples provides teachers of English Language Learners with examples of student writing at each proficiency level. JOYCE Original Statement of Purpose My purpose for this sabbatical is to become a more effective teacher of writing by devoting a year to writing and writing-related activities. Since a familiarity with the basics of the craft is half the battle, The Writers Store has provided you with resources, a screenplay example, and overview on how to write a screenplay to. However, this page has similar resources and perhaps a few different sample papers, etc. The student report should receive substantive critique and correction by the faculty mentor in its development. Business strategy alignment. Approval sample letter for attending a seminar. Explain some results from the training report summary. Penzu's free diary software come in handy in such a situation, as online and mobile entries can be made in your Penzu journal from any location. Include the date of the report, the author's name and contact information in a second block of information on the cover page. One way to help us look at our own writing more objectively is to leave it alone for a while and then return to it a few days later. Planning a Seminar. So now it's time to put those newfound. Download samples of professional document drafts in Word. When you leave that teaching interview room, try to show a potential employer some courtesy by sending them a thank you email after teaching interview. Thank you, emails don't have to be lengthy and involved. Training of employees takes place after orientation takes place. I have been blogging for quite some time but I have never thought about writing a post after attending a conference. State the reason the client came to you, the highlights of your conversation, and the recommendations for a plan of action. Preparing to write a post event report. In some instances some senders may even include a request for an RSVP to let the sender know whether or not you will attend and an alternative route for regrets only; i. While most of us are happy to write informal emails to friends that might have grammatical mistakes in them, the same is not true when writing to colleagues and clients with whom we want to make a good impression. I visited here while I was a stu-dent in high school, and I really liked the environ- I stayed after I finished my undergrad degree. Internship Report Sample — Internship Report Format Internship report drafted by top professionals to provide guidance to students have given the few important steps in chronological order. Most press reports of retreats are very positive. On this page you will find high school resume samples. Any request for a written statement or report should be confirmed in writing. Start by using the standard report writing format and then adapt it to meet your specific needs. Training is the process of enhancing the skills, capabilities and knowledge of employees for doing a particular job. You are not corresponding to an ordinary personality so you have to be very much careful in this regard. You will have access to the course for 30 days after enrollment. Use this sample thank you letter for invitation to conference as a template for your formal thank you letter. Think about the target audience who will participate and what they stand to gain from attending the seminar. A few people have asked me how I am able to remember half of the stuff I write about, hopefully this post will help clear that up too! Why write up conference talks. Business leaders use these reports to evaluate what is working and what isn't and to develop recommendations for change. But take a deep breath and get ready to. The first sentence of the introduction should grab readers and not let them go. I would be delighted to attend. Reports and essays are similar in the fact that they are both written with careful proofreading, formal style and neat presentation. Student Models. The report has three sections. Here are samples, templates and examples for writing letters of references for employment, character or personal reference. These expert consultations while addressing issues which are closely related to the work of the Task Force, are completely independent from the inter-government negotiation process, and treat the subject from a pure scientific perspective. The Task Force had the objectives to develop standards, guidelines or recommendations, as appropriated, for foods derived from biotechnology or traits introduced into foods by biotechnology. Diseases affecting livestock can have a significant impact on animal productivity and production, on trade in live animals, meat and other animal products, on human health diseases transmissible from animals to humans , and, consequently, on the overall process of economic development. The Convention extends to the protection of natural flora and plant products.

That's why it's essential to write an event report after the event concludes. To write any employment letter the template is very helpful as it reports to write perfect letter. A good question should be short and straightforward. Also, it is very helpful in creating logical ties between events.

So, above is the sample business letter or the formal formats of the business letter which help you lots while writing the business letter. Writing Samples This collection of grade-level writing samples provides teachers of English Language Learners with examples of student writing at each proficiency level.

JOYCE Original Statement of Purpose My purpose for this sabbatical is to become a more effective teacher of writing by devoting a year to writing and writing-related activities. Since a familiarity with the basics of the craft is half the example, The Writers Store has provided you essay resources, a screenplay example, and overview on how to write a screenplay to. However, this page has similar resources and perhaps a few different sample papers, etc.

The student report should receive substantive critique and correction by the faculty mentor in its development. Business strategy alignment. Approval sample letter for attending a seminar. Explain some results from for training report summary. Penzu's free diary software come in handy in such a situation, as online and mobile entries can be made in your Penzu journal from any location. Include the date of the report, the author's name and contact information in a second block of information on the cover page.

The guidelines given here are used for writing a rationale for attending a professional growth. But only if they're donor-centered. This post was originally added to Learnhigher on: January 15th, Often report writing at university is presented as deceptively simple — all you need to do is ensure you follow the required report structure, and write clearly and concisely. Study at our beautiful campus in central Virginia or online from anywhere in the world!. Introduction to Graduate Writing wanted to attend. Make sure your letter gets to the person you intend it to go to, so write, type or draw anything on your envelope you think might help your epistle to stand out. When writing a lab report, it is often a good idea to begin by writing the Materials and Methods section. Guide to print and online resources for legal writing. The best type of thank-you email is one that takes less than 45 seconds to read. Most academic conferences publish either the abstracts of the papers presented at the conference or a copy of the full papers presented. Allow your students to learn from the experience and findings of other groups by having them share the results of group work with the rest of the class. Report Writing Format. Answer 1 of 3 : It is probably easier than you think to write a report on a training seminar that you have attended. There are seemingly endless hoops to jump. Here is a list of some common transition word that can be helpful for writer to use the word to link two sentences. That's why it's essential to write an event report after the event concludes. To write any employment letter the template is very helpful as it helps to write perfect letter. A good question should be short and straightforward. Also, it is very helpful in creating logical ties between events. So, above is the sample business letter or the formal formats of the business letter which help you lots while writing the business letter. Writing Samples This collection of grade-level writing samples provides teachers of English Language Learners with examples of student writing at each proficiency level. JOYCE Original Statement of Purpose My purpose for this sabbatical is to become a more effective teacher of writing by devoting a year to writing and writing-related activities. Since a familiarity with the basics of the craft is half the battle, The Writers Store has provided you with resources, a screenplay example, and overview on how to write a screenplay to. However, this page has similar resources and perhaps a few different sample papers, etc. The student report should receive substantive critique and correction by the faculty mentor in its development. Business strategy alignment. Approval sample letter for attending a seminar. Explain some results from the training report summary. Penzu's free diary software come in handy in such a situation, as online and mobile entries can be made in your Penzu journal from any location. Include the date of the report, the author's name and contact information in a second block of information on the cover page. One way to help us look at our own writing more objectively is to leave it alone for a while and then return to it a few days later. Planning a Seminar. So now it's time to put those newfound. Download samples of professional document drafts in Word. When you leave that teaching interview room, try to show a potential employer some courtesy by sending them a thank you email after teaching interview. Thank you, emails don't have to be lengthy and involved. Training of employees takes place after orientation takes place. I have been blogging for quite some time but I have never thought about writing a post after attending a conference. State the reason the client came to you, the highlights of your conversation, and the recommendations for a plan of action. Preparing to write a post event report. In some instances some senders may even include a request for an RSVP to let the sender know whether or not you will attend and an alternative route for regrets only; i. While most of us are happy to write informal emails to friends that might have grammatical mistakes in them, the same is not true when writing to colleagues and clients with whom we want to make a good impression. I visited here while I was a stu-dent in high school, and I really liked the environ- I stayed after I finished my undergrad degree. Internship Report Sample — Internship Report Format Internship report drafted by top professionals to provide guidance to students have given the few important steps in chronological order. Most press reports of retreats are very positive. On this page you will find high school resume samples. Any request for a written statement or report should be confirmed in writing. Start by using the standard report writing format and then adapt it to meet your specific needs. Training is the process of enhancing the skills, capabilities and knowledge of employees for doing a particular job. You are not corresponding to an ordinary personality so you have to be very much careful in this regard. You will have access to the course for 30 days after enrollment. Use this sample thank you letter for invitation to conference as a template for your formal thank you letter. Think about the target audience who will participate and what they stand to gain from attending the seminar. A few people have asked me how I am able to remember half of the stuff I write about, hopefully this post will help clear that up too! Why write up conference talks. Business leaders use these reports to evaluate what is working and what isn't and to develop recommendations for change. But take a deep breath and get ready to. The first sentence of the introduction should grab readers and not let them go. I would be delighted to attend. Reports and essays are similar in the fact that they are both written with careful proofreading, formal style and neat presentation. Student Models. The report has three sections. Here are samples, templates and examples for writing letters of references for employment, character or personal reference. Then comes your name. This document presents strategies you can use to write an effective project report, and prescribes an organizational structure for writing such a report. After completing the introduction, read-ers will decide if they want to continue. A reflection essay is normally about a personal experience and a lesson or realization from it. In a persuasive essay, the different sides of the argument can be devloped slightly. Our aim is to help students progress through school with the support of custom writing help. Full Seminar Report Sample. Thus, he thought the discussion was about properties and not experimental approaches per se. Powerful selective conditions and screens are frequently applied, for example, that can be reasonably anticipated to yield agents with the properties that these selective conditions and screens are meant to identify. In his view, risk assessments should be focused on intentional work that can be reasonably anticipated to produce these problematic properties. Such research is consequential because in some cases there are not adequate countermeasures available to thwart or contain these agents, and the results could be used in further research in less secure settings. He acknowledged that there are also potential risks in not doing experiments, but the question is how large they are and argued that there are ways of trying both to anticipate and address this concern. Relman also stated that, in almost every case, other experimental approaches will provide the knowledge that scientists agree is critical and many of the benefits that they agree are needed without necessarily undertaking this very small subset of experiments to create the specific agents with these combined properties. These alternative approaches include knockout approaches, GoF experiments in altered genetic backgrounds, as well as much more aggressive surveys of what already exists in nature. Relman accepted that there may be circumstances when these approaches would not yield what has been learned from the more risky GoF experiments, and that Dr. Yoshihiro Kawaoka had clearly described them in his talk see Chapter 3. There are uncertainties in those results just as there are uncertainties in the results of these alternative approaches. There is always uncertainty about whether or not the results are truly relevant to the circumstance that scientists most wish to understand. With regard to the future, over time the technology of reverse genetics developed by Peter Palese in the s e. But one can say with confidence that the number of people with such capabilities will grow as the capacity to do this work continues to expand. This is a good thing, but it has consequences and implications. Not only is the information now in a digital form, but the procedures are also now digitized and rendered into protocols that can be uploaded to robots. Companies are emerging, for example in Silicon Valley, that will do research for money of whatever type and specificity are indicated in the experimental protocol. For Relman, these trends mean that one cannot simply talk about risk and benefit at the site where the original information is produced or the site at which the original experiment takes place. It is more than a question of biosafety. This means that the work is a distributed effort across the globe and that many people are interested in this work for a wide variety of reasons, some of which the participants in this meeting may not have been able to fathom, and who were not represented in the room. They were not there, nor have they been so far in discussions about both benefits and risk. He argued this also means that governance and oversight should be distributed in the same fashion that the scientific capability is becoming distributed. In misuse, he also included people willing to do irresponsible, if not deliberately mischievous acts, as well as those who show callous disregard or accidental or benign neglect of proper procedures and mindfulness. The discussion of potential risk is thus about safety and security. He underscored the range of motivations in the life sciences beyond a quest for knowledge or to help people. Some people now undertaking life sciences research are just curious, some are interested in fame, and some are interesed in fortune and economic benefit. None of these is bad, but the variety of potential motives and actors has serious implications for how to think and talk about risk. Relman also noted that part of the diffusion of capacity was the rapid expansion of the capabilities of individuals in life sciences, which are now comparable to those of large organizations years ago. Relman began his remarks about moral and ethical principles in science with the statement that scientists have an obligation to think about public beneficence, which means maximizing benefits, minimizing harm. Scientists have an important commitment to intellectual freedom and responsibility in science—and the two go hand in hand. This should include support for democratic and deliberative processes of decision-making. Furthermore, modern science, much of which is funded by the public, demands consideration of morality because of the increasingly blurred line between basic and applied science. This leads to the question of whether there are any experiments that ought not to be undertaken because the risks outweigh the benefits or because the benefits will only be realized in the indefinite future. The experiments should be defined carefully today, mindful that those definitions might have to be altered very quickly. In summary, Relman offered several points about how to move forward: As others have said, we need narrow and specific definitions of what research we are concerned about. We need to come to some agreement, if we can, about whether there are experiments that will not be funded and whether there are, morally, experiments that should not be undertaken for now. He thinks these experiments are very few and far between and should not scare anyone away from addressing this question. We should also give guidance about which experiments others might view as very closely related but that we think are acceptable and should be funded, perhaps under certain degrees of oversight. But we need to give positive messages as well as negative messages. We need standardized reviews, standardized assessment approaches, and flexible mechanisms. We need democratic, deliberative, and iterative processes that have neutral sponsors and hosts. Finally, as others had already said, this effort must international and must be collaborative. During the discussion of the papers by Kawaoka and Dr. Ronald Fouchier, Dr. Robert Webster from St. Kawaoka answered that before mechanisms to restrict access and keep information only in certain groups are in place, it will be difficult to use that information in a useful way. Relman added that a distinction must be made between information that comes directly from nature or is deliberately created to have a combination of properties that renders them unusually dangerous to humans. Relman specified that he is not concerned about the deliberate enhancement of only one of the properties cited earlier in an agent and, therefore, he thinks that the broad term GoF does not specify what people are the most concerned about. Webster stated that in the influenza field, the goal is to predict which influenza viruses in birds have the potential to shift its host range to humans. He then asked whether we can achieve this kind of information without the GoF studies. Kawaoka and Relman agreed that researchers should understand more than what is currently known and that they are just beginning to learn what is involved in transmissibility and how to make predictions about it. Relman suggested that particular pieces of useful experience from other circumstances where scientists had to deal with difficult to quantify potential risks, such as the nuclear power industry or the creation of airplanes or even variability in the infectious disease community, all are worth capturing. Gerald Epstein asked Relman whether there are there meritorious scientific experiments we should not do. Relman thinks there are experiments that would yield interesting information that may have some value, but may fail on the appropriateness and prudence question because of the magnitude of risk e. Rob Weyant U. Marc Lipsitch Harvard University. Johnson began the session with a presentation that highlighted examples of the kinds of accidents that have occurred recently in the United States as well as in other countries. Such incidents can result in Laboratory Acquired Infections LAIs among laboratory workers, and these have occurred all over the world. Causes of these accidents included noncompliance with biosafety procedures, human error, and equipment failures. Fortunately among the recent mishaps in the United States, there have been no LAIs, but this is not the case elsewhere in the world. The causes of LAIs may be difficult to recognize at the time of the exposure. There may be no definitive moment that indicates an LAI potential, such as a needle stick, animal bite, or dropped pipette. It is estimated that only 20 percent of the causes of LAIs are actually recognized. To add to this problem, many countries under-report accidents or may claim to have never had an LAI. Johnson noted that to say that a lab has never had an LAI may mean that the operators have never been able to account for it, that it has never been investigated, or that it has never been reported. Johnson believes that under-reporting is harmful in that it prevents us from learning from our mistakes—we are losing the opportunity to benefit from lessons learned. Johnson provided information on the actions that had been taken in the United States in response to the recent spate of incidents. At the CDC, these included suspension of activities, review and remediation of all procedures, verification of adequate inactivation procedures, strengthening of biosafety agency-wide, the formation of an external group of experts to review and advise CDC, improvement of management of internal incidents, investigation of root causes and personnel issues, and a new requirement for single point of contact to be established for biosafety issues. Examples of National Approches to Biosecurity For the past ten years, Norway has been in the process of reforming its national food safety administration to include animal and plant health and related activities. This national "Biosecurity" concept was presented by Dr. Download concept paper Capacity Building in Biosecurity An FAO technical consultation on Biosecurity held in Bangkok in January identified the critical need for capacity-building for developing countries and countries with economies in transition. Biotechnology in food and agriculture Biotechnology provides powerful tools for the sustainable development of agriculture, fisheries and forestry, as well as the food industry.

One way to help us look at our own writing more objectively is to leave it alone for a while and then return to it a few days later. Planning a Seminar.

Report essay examples for biosecurity

So now it's time to put those newfound. Download samples of professional document drafts in Word. When you leave that teaching interview room, try to show a potential employer some courtesy by sending them a thank you email after teaching interview. Thank you, emails don't have to be lengthy and involved. Training of employees takes place after orientation takes place.

I have been blogging for quite some example but I have never thought about writing a post after attending a conference. State the reason the client came free persuasive essay articles you, the highlights of your conversation, and the recommendations for a plan of action.

Preparing to write a post event report. In some instances some for may even include a request for an RSVP to let the sender know whether or not you report attend and an alternative route for regrets only; i. While most of us are happy to report informal emails to essays that might have grammatical examples in them, the same is not true when writing to colleagues and clients with whom we want to make a good impression.

I visited here while I was a stu-dent in high school, and I really liked the environ- I stayed after I finished my undergrad degree. Internship Report Sample — Internship Report Format Internship report drafted by top professionals to provide guidance to students have given the few important steps in chronological order. Most press reports of retreats are very positive. On this page you will find high school resume samples. Any request for a written statement or report should be confirmed in writing.

Start by using the standard report writing format and then adapt it to meet your how to write an introduction of an essay with summart needs.

Training is the process of enhancing the skills, capabilities and knowledge of employees for doing a particular job.

You are not corresponding to an ordinary personality so you have to be very much careful in this regard. You will have access to the course for 30 days after enrollment. Use this sample thank you letter for invitation to conference as a template for your formal thank you letter. Think about the target audience who will participate and what they stand to gain from attending the seminar. A for people have asked me how I am able to remember half of the stuff I write about, hopefully this post will help clear that up too!

Why write up conference talks.

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Business leaders use these reports to evaluate what is working and what isn't and to develop for for change. But take a deep breath and get ready to. The first sentence of the introduction should grab readers and not let them go.

I report be delighted to attend. Reports and essays are similar in the fact that they are both written with careful proofreading, formal style and neat presentation. Student Models. The report has three sections.

Here are samples, templates and examples for writing letters of references for employment, character or personal reference. Then example your name. This document presents strategies you can use to write an effective project report, and prescribes an organizational structure for essay such a report. After completing the introduction, for will decide if they want to continue. A report essay is normally about a personal essay and a lesson or realization from it.

In a persuasive essay, the different sides of the argument can be devloped slightly. Our aim is to help students progress through school with the support of custom writing help. Full Seminar Report Sample.