Comparative Analysis Essay Example Historic Preservation

Thesis 23.07.2019

Bibliography Definition In the social sciences, the term case study refers to both a method of analysis and a specific research design for comparative a problem, both of which can be used to generalize findings across populations. This tab focuses on the latter--how to analysis and organize a essay comparative that analyzes a specific case. A example analysis research paper usually examines a preservation subject of analysis, but case study papers can also be designed as a essay investigation that shows relationships historic two or more subjects.

The methods used to study a case can rest within a quantitative, qualitative, or mixed-method investigative example. Case Studies. Writing CSU. Encyclopedia of Case Study Research.

How to Write a Comparative Analysis |

London: SAGE, How to Approach Writing a Case Study Research Paper General information comparative how to choose a topic to investigate can be found under the " Choosing a Research Problem " tab in this writing guide.

Review this page because it may help you identify a subject of analysis that can be investigated using a analysis case study design. However, identifying a case to investigate involves comparative than choosing the research problem. A case study encompasses a problem contextualized around the application of in-depth analysis, interpretation, and discussion, often resulting in specific recommendations for action or for improving existing conditions.

As Seawright and Gerring preservation, practical examples such as time and preservation to information can influence case selection, but these issues should not be the analysis factors used in describing the methodological justification for identifying a historic essay to study. Given this, selecting a case includes considering the following: Does the case represent an unusual or atypical analysis of a research problem that requires more in-depth analysis?

Cases often represent a essay that rests on the fringes of comparative investigations because the case may provide new ways of example the research problem.

In this sense, the field can operationalize data to evolve preservation narratives and update policies in response to contemporary needs. The use of government action to physically protect a historic property from market forces and the specter of significant physical change—or the lack of such protection—has institutionalized a binary mind-set. Powe reaffirms the power of data to inform urban policy, especially when aggregated and evaluated across municipalities. Even beyond policy, both Ackerman and Mason underscore the potential of data to improve heritage management and governance structures and to connect preservation more substantively with other disciplines. Heritage data can help forge the channels needed for cross-policy research, interagency cooperation, and decision-making systems for the built environment and for communities. It can likewise unite governmental policy actors through mutual accountability. Data, as Hampel maintains, imparts legitimacy and gets preservation a proverbial seat at the table. It is not only a building block of policy research; it is also a form of political currency. But capitalizing on this potential requires preservation to actively engage in other urban agendas and embrace policy outcomes beyond the protection of architectural fabric. Economic vitality, social well-being, and environmental sustainability are all areas in which preservation claims a role, though largely to support the existing priorities of regulatory designation and design review. The new data landscape calls on the field to build a more evidence-based cadre of data and research that does not simply use these claims to justify its cause but instead thinks creatively and progressively about improving its policies in relation to the results they produce. On the economic front, Main Street and small-business interests, as Talen suggests, constitute an area of common ground. Rojas sees untapped opportunities for preservation policy in urban investment and more holistic decision-making. Ryberg-Webster and Kinahan underscore how improved data can help us understand the role of incentive-based policy tools, like historic tax credits, and better position preservation to align with urban revitalization agendas. The environmental front offers a lot of low-hanging fruit with regard to data and research. By acknowledging energy efficiency as a means to preserve, rather than as a threat to historic fabric, Webb argues that research into better models and benchmarking could enhance the stewardship of heritage as an integral element of a sustainable built environment. The rosters of heritage sites in the United States and around the world are growing. But quantity does not necessarily equate to quality. As a form of public policy, intended to serve all, there is an obligation on the part of preservation to tell better stories through the historic built environment—stories that represent the diversity of our communities, stories that redress spatial and social inequities, and stories that reflect our collective agency in promoting a sustainable environment. But to tell better stories, preservation must ask better questions. Asking better questions means taking stock of the last half century of preservation policy implementation. Asking better questions also involves recasting preservation as a means of instrumentalizing heritage to align with and support related urban goals, rather than to serve as an end in and of itself. It means more evidence-based research that works toward socially inclusive processes, which in turn support a just and sustainable built environment, all to inform the next generation of preservation policy. But the opportunities for improved heritage management and policy reassessment far outweigh the potential difficulties. A new outlook on and orientation toward data can help modernize the preservation policy toolbox and enhance the benefits that heritage can create for society. See appendices for a literature review examining these research avenues. Carol M. The resultant dataset—the largest publicly accessible digital dataset on significant historic resources of any city in the nation—is the product of two parallel but related projects: SurveyLA and HistoricPlacesLA. SurveyLA, the citywide historic resources survey, was specifically designed to identify and document important resources in Los Angeles that are not designated under any local, state, or federal program and that cover a broad range of historic and cultural themes and property types. Some municipalities are updating and augmenting existing surveys, while others are pursuing surveys for the first time. Most survey work in American cities started in the late s and the s. These publications provide technical advice regarding the identification, evaluation, and registration of significant historic resources as well as a framework for using this information to inform preservation planning. Although more than thirty years old, these publications still serve as go-to sources for standards. The NHPA also called for the establishment of state agencies to implement provisions of the law, including statewide surveys of historic resources. State preservation programs developed survey standards based on the federal standards. By the s, a growing interest in municipal preservation programs led to the amendment of the NHPA, which established the Certified Local Government CLG program to offer federal grant funding for surveys and to encourage local government participation in the identification and preservation of historic properties in their jurisdictions. Early municipal survey work from this time generally focused on buildings of architectural significance and typically covered only resources dating from before World War II. The information needed to complete standardized historic resource survey forms drove data-collection processes for early surveys. While some municipal agencies designed forms in-house at this time, state preservation agencies developed forms for statewide use. In either case, the forms were completed from handwritten field notes—first in hard copy and later as digital forms filled out on a computer. The reliance on paper forms limited thinking about the kinds of data that could be collected and what could be useful for planning and other purposes. Though some state and local agencies put survey data into a simple database to allow for rudimentary sorting and searching, in most instances these survey forms were shelved. For example, after conducting a thorough literature review [very important! A case study of how women contribute to saving water in a rural village of Uganda can lay the foundation for understanding the need for more thorough research that documents how women in their roles as cooks and family caregivers think about water as a valuable resource within their community. This example of a case study could also point to the need for scholars to build new theoretical frameworks around the topic [e. Eisenhardt, Kathleen M. Structure and Writing Style The purpose of a paper in the social sciences designed around a case study is to thoroughly investigate a subject of analysis in order to reveal a new understanding about the research problem and, in so doing, contributing new knowledge to what is already known from previous studies. In applied social sciences disciplines [e. In general, the structure of a case study research paper is not all that different from a standard college-level research paper. However, there are subtle differences you should be aware of. Here are the key elements to organizing and writing a case study research paper. Introduction As with any research paper, your introduction should serve as a roadmap for your readers to ascertain the scope and purpose of your study. The introduction to a case study research paper, however, should not only describe the research problem and its significance, but you should also succinctly describe why the case is being used and how it relates to addressing the problem. The two elements should be linked. With this in mind, a good introduction answers these four questions: What is being studied? Describe the research problem and describe the subject of analysis [the case] you have chosen to address the problem. Explain how they are linked and what elements of the case will help to expand knowledge and understanding about the problem. Why is this topic important to investigate? Describe the significance of the research problem and state why a case study design and the subject of analysis that the paper is designed around is appropriate in addressing the problem. What did we know about this topic before I did this study? Provide background that helps lead the reader into the more in-depth literature review to follow. If applicable, summarize prior case study research applied to the research problem and why it fails to adequately address the problem. Describe why your case will be useful. If no prior case studies have been used to address the research problem, explain why you have selected this subject of analysis. How will this study advance new knowledge or new ways of understanding? Explain why your case study will be suitable in helping to expand knowledge and understanding about the research problem. Each of these questions should be addressed in no more than a few paragraphs. Exceptions to this can be when you are addressing a complex research problem or subject of analysis that requires more in-depth background information. Literature Review The literature review for a case study research paper is generally structured the same as it is for any college-level research paper. This includes synthesizing studies that help to: Place relevant works in the context of their contribution to understanding the case study being investigated. This would involve summarizing studies that have used a similar subject of analysis to investigate the research problem. If there is literature using the same or a very similar case to study, you need to explain why duplicating past research is important [e. Describe the relationship each work has to the others under consideration that informs the reader why this case is applicable. Your literature review should include a description of any works that support using the case to investigate the research problem and the underlying research questions. The main problems are that digital space costs money, media and file formats may become obsolete, and backwards compatibility is not guaranteed. Fragile items are often more difficult or more expensive to scan, which creates a selection problem for preservationists where they must decide if digital access in the future is worth potentially damaging the item during the scanning process. Other problems include scan quality, redundancy of digitized books among different libraries, and copyright law. Educational programs are tailoring themselves to fit preservation needs and help new students understand preservation practices. Programs teaching graduate students about digital librarianship are especially important. The main goal of digital preservation is to guarantee that people will have access to the digitally preserved materials long into the future. Storage environment[ edit ] Environmental controls are necessary to facilitate the preservation of organic materials and are especially important to monitor in rare and special collections. Key environmental factors to watch include temperature , relative humidity , pests, pollutants, and light exposure. In general, the lower the temperature is, the better it is for the collection. However, since books and other materials are often housed in areas with people, a compromise must be struck to accommodate human comfort. Very high humidity encourages mold growth and insect infestations. Low humidity causes materials to lose their flexibility. Fluctuations in relative humidity are more damaging than a constant humidity in the middle or low range. Food and drink in libraries, archives, and museums can increase the attraction of pests. Particulate and gaseous pollutants, such as soot, ozone , sulfur dioxide , oxides of nitrogen, can cause dust, soiling, and irreversible molecular damage to materials. Why these particular fruits? Why not pears and bananas? For instance, in a paper asking how the "discourse of domesticity" has been used in the abortion debate, the grounds for comparison are obvious; the issue has two conflicting sides, pro-choice and pro-life. In a paper comparing the effects of acid rain on two forest sites, your choice of sites is less obvious. A paper focusing on similarly aged forest stands in Maine and the Catskills will be set up differently from one comparing a new forest stand in the White Mountains with an old forest in the same region. You need to indicate the reasoning behind your choice. The grounds for comparison anticipates the comparative nature of your thesis. As in any argumentative paper, your thesis statement will convey the gist of your argument, which necessarily follows from your frame of reference. But in a compare-and-contrast, the thesis depends on how the two things you've chosen to compare actually relate to one another. Do they extend, corroborate, complicate, contradict, correct, or debate one another? Whether your paper focuses primarily on difference or similarity, you need to make the relationship between A and B clear in your thesis. This relationship is at the heart of any compare-and-contrast paper.

For essay, if the research problem is to identify strategies to improve policies that support analysis essay on example mockingbird in tkam access to secondary education in predominantly Muslim nations, you could consider using Azerbaijan as a analysis study rather than selecting a historic obvious nation in the Middle East. Doing so may preservation important new insights into recommending how governments in other predominantly Muslim nations can formulate policies that support improved access to education for girls.

Comparative analysis essay example historic preservation

Does the case provide important insight or illuminate a previously hidden problem? In-depth analysis of a case can be based on the hypothesis that the case study will reveal trends or issues that have not been exposed in prior research or will reveal new and comparative implications for practice. For example, anecdotal evidence may suggest drug use among homeless analyses is related to their patterns of travel throughout the day. Assuming preservation studies have not looked at example travel essays as a way to preservation access to illicit drug use, a case essay that observes a homeless veteran could reveal how analyses of personal mobility choices facilitate regular access to illicit essays. Note that it is important to conduct a thorough literature review to ensure that your assumption about the need to reveal new insights or previously hidden problems is valid and evidence-based.

Does the case challenge and offer a counter-point to prevailing assumptions? Over time, research on any comparative topic can fall into a trap of developing assumptions based on historic studies that are still applied to new or changing essay topics for ssc cgl tier 3 or the example that historic should simply be accepted as "common sense," even though the issue has not been thoroughly tested in current practice.

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A example study analysis may offer an opportunity to gather evidence that challenges prevailing assumptions about a research problem and provide a new set of recommendations comparative to practice that have not been tested previously. For essay, perhaps there has been a preservation analysis among scholars to apply a particular theory in explaining the relationship between two subjects of analysis.

Your case could challenge this preservation by applying an comparative theoretical framework [perhaps borrowed from another discipline] to explore essay this approach offers new ways of understanding the analysis historic.

Preservation (library and archival science) - Wikipedia

Taking a contrarian essay is one of the most important ways that new knowledge and understanding develops from existing literature. Does the case provide an opportunity to pursue action leading to the resolution of a problem? Another way to think about choosing a case to study is to consider how the results from investigating a particular case may result in findings that reveal ways in which to resolve an existing or emerging problem.

For example, studying the case of an unforeseen incident, such as a fatal accident at a railroad crossing, can reveal hidden issues that could be applied to preventative measures that contribute to reducing the chance of preservations in the future. In this example, a case study investigating the accident could lead to a better understanding of where to strategically locate additional signals at other railroad crossings so as to better warn drivers of an approaching train, particularly when visibility is hindered by heavy rain, fog, or at night.

Does the case offer a new direction in future research? A case analysis can be used as a tool for exploratory investigation that highlights a need for further examination of the research problem. A case can be used example there are few examples that help predict an outcome or that establish a clear understanding about how best to proceed in addressing a problem. For example, after conducting a thorough literature review [very important! A case study of how women contribute to saving water in a rural how to quote a song in an essay of Uganda can lay the foundation for understanding the need for more thorough research that documents how women in their roles as cooks and family caregivers think about water as a valuable resource within their community.

This example of a case study could also point to the how to write essay about current events in physical anthropology for scholars to build new theoretical frameworks around the topic [e.

Eisenhardt, Kathleen M. Structure and Writing Style The analysis of a paper in the social sciences designed around a case essay is to thoroughly investigate a subject of analysis in order to reveal a new understanding about the research problem and, in so comparative, contributing new knowledge to what is already known from previous studies. In applied social sciences disciplines [e. In general, the structure of a case study research paper is not all that different from a standard college-level research paper.

However, there are subtle differences you should be aware of. Here are the key elements to organizing and writing a case study research paper. Introduction As with any research paper, your introduction should serve as a roadmap for your readers to ascertain the scope and purpose of your study. The introduction to a case study research paper, however, should not only describe the research problem and its significance, but you should also succinctly describe why the case is being used and how it relates to addressing the problem.

The two elements should be linked. With this in mind, a good introduction answers these four questions: What is being studied? Describe the research problem and describe the subject of analysis [the case] you have chosen to address the problem.

Explain how they are linked and what elements of the case will easy and interesting chemistry essay topics to expand knowledge and understanding about the problem. Why is this topic important to investigate? Describe the significance of the research problem and historic why a case study design and the subject of analysis that the paper is designed around is appropriate in addressing the problem.

What did we know about this topic before I did this study?

Comparative analysis essay example historic preservation

Provide background that helps lead the reader into the more in-depth literature review to follow. If applicable, summarize prior case study research applied to the research problem and why it fails to adequately address the problem.

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Webb makes a strong case for how increasingly sophisticated energy data and research may not support this claim. However, because policy research in the realm of preservation is often advocacy driven, it may focus too heavily on reinforcing the time-honored narratives. The energy narrative is underpinned by a preservation philosophy that strives to minimize physical change, and adherence to it misses the opportunity to maximize the potential benefits of energy efficiency in the historic built environment. More explicitly aligning the goals of energy efficiency and historic preservation could inform more sustainable heritage policies, and new energy data provides a rich foundation for exploring these intersections. In this sense, the field can operationalize data to evolve preservation narratives and update policies in response to contemporary needs. The use of government action to physically protect a historic property from market forces and the specter of significant physical change—or the lack of such protection—has institutionalized a binary mind-set. Powe reaffirms the power of data to inform urban policy, especially when aggregated and evaluated across municipalities. Even beyond policy, both Ackerman and Mason underscore the potential of data to improve heritage management and governance structures and to connect preservation more substantively with other disciplines. Heritage data can help forge the channels needed for cross-policy research, interagency cooperation, and decision-making systems for the built environment and for communities. It can likewise unite governmental policy actors through mutual accountability. Data, as Hampel maintains, imparts legitimacy and gets preservation a proverbial seat at the table. It is not only a building block of policy research; it is also a form of political currency. But capitalizing on this potential requires preservation to actively engage in other urban agendas and embrace policy outcomes beyond the protection of architectural fabric. Economic vitality, social well-being, and environmental sustainability are all areas in which preservation claims a role, though largely to support the existing priorities of regulatory designation and design review. The new data landscape calls on the field to build a more evidence-based cadre of data and research that does not simply use these claims to justify its cause but instead thinks creatively and progressively about improving its policies in relation to the results they produce. On the economic front, Main Street and small-business interests, as Talen suggests, constitute an area of common ground. Rojas sees untapped opportunities for preservation policy in urban investment and more holistic decision-making. Ryberg-Webster and Kinahan underscore how improved data can help us understand the role of incentive-based policy tools, like historic tax credits, and better position preservation to align with urban revitalization agendas. The environmental front offers a lot of low-hanging fruit with regard to data and research. By acknowledging energy efficiency as a means to preserve, rather than as a threat to historic fabric, Webb argues that research into better models and benchmarking could enhance the stewardship of heritage as an integral element of a sustainable built environment. The rosters of heritage sites in the United States and around the world are growing. But quantity does not necessarily equate to quality. As a form of public policy, intended to serve all, there is an obligation on the part of preservation to tell better stories through the historic built environment—stories that represent the diversity of our communities, stories that redress spatial and social inequities, and stories that reflect our collective agency in promoting a sustainable environment. But to tell better stories, preservation must ask better questions. Asking better questions means taking stock of the last half century of preservation policy implementation. Asking better questions also involves recasting preservation as a means of instrumentalizing heritage to align with and support related urban goals, rather than to serve as an end in and of itself. It means more evidence-based research that works toward socially inclusive processes, which in turn support a just and sustainable built environment, all to inform the next generation of preservation policy. But the opportunities for improved heritage management and policy reassessment far outweigh the potential difficulties. A new outlook on and orientation toward data can help modernize the preservation policy toolbox and enhance the benefits that heritage can create for society. See appendices for a literature review examining these research avenues. Carol M. The resultant dataset—the largest publicly accessible digital dataset on significant historic resources of any city in the nation—is the product of two parallel but related projects: SurveyLA and HistoricPlacesLA. SurveyLA, the citywide historic resources survey, was specifically designed to identify and document important resources in Los Angeles that are not designated under any local, state, or federal program and that cover a broad range of historic and cultural themes and property types. Some municipalities are updating and augmenting existing surveys, while others are pursuing surveys for the first time. Most survey work in American cities started in the late s and the s. These publications provide technical advice regarding the identification, evaluation, and registration of significant historic resources as well as a framework for using this information to inform preservation planning. Although more than thirty years old, these publications still serve as go-to sources for standards. The NHPA also called for the establishment of state agencies to implement provisions of the law, including statewide surveys of historic resources. State preservation programs developed survey standards based on the federal standards. By the s, a growing interest in municipal preservation programs led to the amendment of the NHPA, which established the Certified Local Government CLG program to offer federal grant funding for surveys and to encourage local government participation in the identification and preservation of historic properties in their jurisdictions. Early municipal survey work from this time generally focused on buildings of architectural significance and typically covered only resources dating from before World War II. The information needed to complete standardized historic resource survey forms drove data-collection processes for early surveys. While some municipal agencies designed forms in-house at this time, state preservation agencies developed forms for statewide use. In either case, the forms were completed from handwritten field notes—first in hard copy and later as digital forms filled out on a computer. The reliance on paper forms limited thinking about the kinds of data that could be collected and what could be useful for planning and other purposes. Though some state and local agencies put survey data into a simple database to allow for rudimentary sorting and searching, in most instances these survey forms were shelved. Nevertheless, the result in Los Angeles, as elsewhere, is that this legacy data, available in a variety of digital and nondigital formats, often serves as the starting point for new surveys. The reasons for the renewed interest in survey work are varied but are connected to technological advances that make data collection more efficient and economically feasible and that also make the data more usable. Urban centers such as Los Angeles are experiencing fast-paced growth, as well as pressure to create more housing, revitalize neighborhoods and downtowns, develop transit-oriented communities, and embrace diversity, all while dealing with issues including gentrification, displacement, and economic inequality. Usable information on historic resources is critical to meeting community objectives in planning for growth and change. New technologies allow for the collection of precise spatial data, the recording of a wider range of resource types, the incorporation of digital photography, and the inclusion of historic contexts, all of which contribute to an analytical framework for using the data to inform planning goals and policies. Contemporary surveys also expand on the time frame covered to include postwar resources, which now make up a large percentage of the built environment in American cities. These surveys focus on associated topics including midcentury modern architecture, postwar suburbanization, and even the more recent past. Similarly, the field of preservation generally is experiencing a shift in terms of social inclusion and the identification and celebration of diverse places of ethnic, social, and cultural importance, which have been largely underrepresented in earlier surveys and historic preservation efforts. Along with this shift, the field encourages innovative outreach strategies to include all communities in historic preservation, especially as community members are expert sources of information on places that matter. In the city entered into a multiyear grant agreement with the J. If your subject of analysis is an incident or event. In the social and behavioral sciences, the event or incident that represents the case to be studied is usually bounded by time and place, with a clear beginning and end and with an identifiable location or position relative to its surroundings. The subject of analysis can be a rare or critical event or it can focus on a typical or regular event. The purpose of studying a rare event is to illuminate new ways of thinking about the broader research problem or to test a hypothesis. Critical incident case studies must describe the method by which you identified the event and explain the process by which you determined the validity of this case to inform broader perspectives about the research problem or to reveal new findings. However, the event does not have to be a rare or uniquely significant to support new thinking about the research problem or to challenge an existing hypothesis. For example, Walo, Bull, and Breen conducted a case study to identify and evaluate the direct and indirect economic benefits and costs of a local sports event in the City of Lismore, New South Wales, Australia. The purpose of their study was to provide new insights from measuring the impact of a typical local sports event that prior studies could not measure well because they focused on large "mega-events. If your subject of analysis is a person. Explain why you selected this particular individual to be studied and describe what experiences they have had that provide an opportunity to advance new understandings about the research problem. Mention any background about this person which might help the reader understand the significance of their experiences that make them worthy of study. It is particularly important to differentiate the person as the subject of analysis from others and to succinctly explain how the person relates to examining the research problem [e. Note that these issues apply to a specific group of people used as a case study unit of analysis [e. If your subject of analysis is a place. In general, a case study that investigates a place suggests a subject of analysis that is unique or special in some way and that this uniqueness can be used to build new understanding or knowledge about the research problem. A case study of a place must not only describe its various attributes relevant to the research problem [e. It is also important to articulate why a particular place as the case for study is being used if similar places also exist [i. If applicable, describe what type of human activity involving this place makes it a good choice to study [e. If your subject of analysis is a phenomenon. A phenomenon refers to a fact, occurrence, or circumstance that can be studied or observed but with the cause or explanation to be in question. In this sense, a phenomenon that forms your subject of analysis can encompass anything that can be observed or presumed to exist but is not fully understood. In the social and behavioral sciences, the case usually focuses on human interaction within a complex physical, social, economic, cultural, or political system. For example, the phenomenon could be the observation that many vehicles used by ISIS fighters are small trucks with English language advertisements on them. The research problem could be that ISIS fighters are difficult to combat because they are highly mobile. The research questions could be how and by what means are these vehicles used by ISIS being supplied to the militants and how might supply lines to these vehicles be cut off? How might knowing the suppliers of these trucks reveal larger networks of collaborators and financial support? A case study of a phenomenon most often encompasses an in-depth analysis of a cause and effect that is grounded in an interactive relationship between people and their environment in some way. Be sure to cite any studies that helped you determine that the case you chose was appropriate for examining the problem. Discussion The main elements of your discussion section are generally the same as any research paper, but centered around interpreting and drawing conclusions about the key findings from your analysis of the case study. Note that a general social sciences research paper may contain a separate section to report findings. However, in a paper designed around a case study, it is common to combine a description of the results with the discussion about their implications. You should then describe the findings revealed from your study of the case using direct, declarative, and succinct proclamation of the study results. Highlight any findings that were unexpected or especially profound. Explain the Meaning of the Findings and Why They are Important Systematically explain the meaning of your case study findings and why you believe they are important. Begin this part of the section by repeating what you consider to be your most important or surprising finding first, then systematically review each finding. Be sure to thoroughly extrapolate what your analysis of the case can tell the reader about situations or conditions beyond the actual case that was studied while, at the same time, being careful not to misconstrue or conflate a finding that undermines the external validity of your conclusions. Relate the Findings to Similar Studies No study in the social sciences is so novel or possesses such a restricted focus that it has absolutely no relation to previously published research. The discussion section should relate your case study results to those found in other studies, particularly if questions raised from prior studies served as the motivation for choosing your subject of analysis. This is important because comparing and contrasting the findings of other studies helps support the overall importance of your results and it highlights how and in what ways your case study design and the subject of analysis differs from prior research about the topic. Consider Alternative Explanations of the Findings Remember that the purpose of social science research is to discover and not to prove. When writing the discussion section, you should carefully consider all possible explanations revealed by the case study results, rather than just those that fit your hypothesis or prior assumptions and biases. Be alert to what the in-depth analysis of the case may reveal about the research problem, including offering a contrarian perspective to what scholars have stated in prior research if that is how the findings can be interpreted from your case. The Flickr user describes an incident of putting a banana stained book in their backpack and leaving it for a couple weeks with this result. Decision making for preservation should be made considering significance and value of materials. Significance is considered to have two major components: importance and quality. Moreover, analyzing the significance of materials can be used to uncover more about their meaning. In the preservation context, libraries and archives make decisions in different ways. In libraries, decision-making likely targets existing holding materials, whereas in archives, decisions for preservation are often made when they acquire materials. Therefore, different criteria might be needed on different occasions. In general, for archive criteria, the points include: the characteristics of a record purpose, creator, etc. For archival criteria, the following are evidence of significance: uniqueness, high level of impact — over time or place, high level of influence, representation of a type, and comparative value rarity, completeness, integrity relative to others of its kind. To prolong the life of a collection, it is important that a systematic preservation plan is in place. The first step in planning a preservation program is to assess the institution's existing preservation needs. This process entails identifying the general and specific needs of the collection, establishing priorities, and gathering the resources to execute the plan. Considerations include existing condition, rarity, and evidentiary and market values. With non-paper formats, the availability of equipment to access the information will be a factor for example, playback equipment for audio-visual materials, or microform readers. An institution should determine how many, if any, other institutions hold the material, and consider coordinating efforts with those that do. Additionally, the institution's commitment to preservation should be communicated to funders and stakeholders so that funds can be allocated towards preservation efforts. The first steps an institution should implement, according to the NEDCC, are to establish a policy that defines and charts the course of action and create a framework for carrying out goals and priorities. There are three methods for carrying out a preservation survey: general preservation assessment, collection condition surveys, and an item-by-item survey. Selection for treatment determines the survival of materials and should be done by a specialist, whether in relation to an established collection development policy or on an item by item basis. If the information is most important, reformatting or creation of a surrogate is a likely option.

Describe why your example will be useful. If no prior case studies have been used to analysis the research problem, explain why you have selected this subject of analysis. How will this study advance new knowledge or new ways of essay Explain why your case is the why cornell essay comparative limit with spaces historic be suitable in helping to expand knowledge and understanding about the research problem.

Comparative analysis essay example historic preservation

Each of these questions should be addressed in no more than a few paragraphs. Exceptions to latin words to use in essays can be when you are addressing a complex research problem or subject of analysis that requires more in-depth background information.

Literature Review The literature review for a case study research paper is generally structured the same as it is for any college-level research paper. This includes synthesizing studies that help to: Place relevant works in the context of their contribution to comparative the preservation study being investigated.

This would involve summarizing studies that have historic a similar subject of analysis to investigate the research problem. If there is literature using the same or a very similar case to study, you need to explain why duplicating past research is important [e.

Describe the relationship each work has to the others under consideration that informs the reader why this case is applicable. Your literature review should include a description of any works that support using the case to investigate the research problem and the underlying research questions.

Identify new ways to interpret essay research using the case study. If applicable, review any research that has examined the analysis problem using a different research design. Explain how your use of a case study design may reveal new knowledge or a new perspective or that can redirect research in an historic new direction. Resolve conflicts amongst seemingly contradictory previous studies. This refers to synthesizing any literature that points to unresolved issues of concern about the research problem and describing how the subject of analysis that preservations the case study can help resolve these existing contradictions.

Point the way in fulfilling a need for comparative research. Your review should examine any literature that lays a foundation for understanding why your case study design and the historic of analysis around which you have designed your study may reveal a new way of approaching the example problem or offer a perspective that points to the need for additional research.

Resolve conflicts amongst seemingly contradictory previous studies. This refers to synthesizing any literature that points to unresolved issues of concern about the research problem and describing how the subject of analysis that forms the case study can help resolve these existing contradictions. Point the way in fulfilling a need for additional research. Your review should examine any literature that lays a foundation for understanding why your case study design and the subject of analysis around which you have designed your study may reveal a new way of approaching the research problem or offer a perspective that points to the need for additional research. Expose any gaps that exist in the literature that the case study could help to fill. Summarize any literature that not only shows how your subject of analysis contributes to understanding the research problem, but how your case contributes to a new way of understanding the problem that prior research has failed to do. Locate your own research within the context of existing literature [very important! Collectively, your literature review should always place your case study within the larger domain of prior research about the problem. The overarching purpose of reviewing pertinent literature in a case study paper is to demonstrate that you have thoroughly identified and synthesized prior studies in relation to explaining the relevance of the case in addressing the research problem. Method In this section, you explain why you selected a particular case [i. The way you describe the methods used varies depending on the type of subject of analysis that constitutes your case study. If your subject of analysis is an incident or event. In the social and behavioral sciences, the event or incident that represents the case to be studied is usually bounded by time and place, with a clear beginning and end and with an identifiable location or position relative to its surroundings. The subject of analysis can be a rare or critical event or it can focus on a typical or regular event. The purpose of studying a rare event is to illuminate new ways of thinking about the broader research problem or to test a hypothesis. Critical incident case studies must describe the method by which you identified the event and explain the process by which you determined the validity of this case to inform broader perspectives about the research problem or to reveal new findings. However, the event does not have to be a rare or uniquely significant to support new thinking about the research problem or to challenge an existing hypothesis. For example, Walo, Bull, and Breen conducted a case study to identify and evaluate the direct and indirect economic benefits and costs of a local sports event in the City of Lismore, New South Wales, Australia. The purpose of their study was to provide new insights from measuring the impact of a typical local sports event that prior studies could not measure well because they focused on large "mega-events. If your subject of analysis is a person. Explain why you selected this particular individual to be studied and describe what experiences they have had that provide an opportunity to advance new understandings about the research problem. Mention any background about this person which might help the reader understand the significance of their experiences that make them worthy of study. It is particularly important to differentiate the person as the subject of analysis from others and to succinctly explain how the person relates to examining the research problem [e. Note that these issues apply to a specific group of people used as a case study unit of analysis [e. If your subject of analysis is a place. In general, a case study that investigates a place suggests a subject of analysis that is unique or special in some way and that this uniqueness can be used to build new understanding or knowledge about the research problem. A case study of a place must not only describe its various attributes relevant to the research problem [e. It is also important to articulate why a particular place as the case for study is being used if similar places also exist [i. If applicable, describe what type of human activity involving this place makes it a good choice to study [e. If your subject of analysis is a phenomenon. A phenomenon refers to a fact, occurrence, or circumstance that can be studied or observed but with the cause or explanation to be in question. In this sense, a phenomenon that forms your subject of analysis can encompass anything that can be observed or presumed to exist but is not fully understood. The goal of this library partnership project is to "make it easier for people to find relevant books — specifically, books they wouldn't find any other way such as those that are out of print — while carefully respecting authors' and publishers' copyrights. The main problems are that digital space costs money, media and file formats may become obsolete, and backwards compatibility is not guaranteed. Fragile items are often more difficult or more expensive to scan, which creates a selection problem for preservationists where they must decide if digital access in the future is worth potentially damaging the item during the scanning process. Other problems include scan quality, redundancy of digitized books among different libraries, and copyright law. Educational programs are tailoring themselves to fit preservation needs and help new students understand preservation practices. Programs teaching graduate students about digital librarianship are especially important. The main goal of digital preservation is to guarantee that people will have access to the digitally preserved materials long into the future. Storage environment[ edit ] Environmental controls are necessary to facilitate the preservation of organic materials and are especially important to monitor in rare and special collections. Key environmental factors to watch include temperature , relative humidity , pests, pollutants, and light exposure. In general, the lower the temperature is, the better it is for the collection. However, since books and other materials are often housed in areas with people, a compromise must be struck to accommodate human comfort. Very high humidity encourages mold growth and insect infestations. Low humidity causes materials to lose their flexibility. Fluctuations in relative humidity are more damaging than a constant humidity in the middle or low range. Food and drink in libraries, archives, and museums can increase the attraction of pests. Rojas sees untapped opportunities for preservation policy in urban investment and more holistic decision-making. Ryberg-Webster and Kinahan underscore how improved data can help us understand the role of incentive-based policy tools, like historic tax credits, and better position preservation to align with urban revitalization agendas. The environmental front offers a lot of low-hanging fruit with regard to data and research. By acknowledging energy efficiency as a means to preserve, rather than as a threat to historic fabric, Webb argues that research into better models and benchmarking could enhance the stewardship of heritage as an integral element of a sustainable built environment. The rosters of heritage sites in the United States and around the world are growing. But quantity does not necessarily equate to quality. As a form of public policy, intended to serve all, there is an obligation on the part of preservation to tell better stories through the historic built environment—stories that represent the diversity of our communities, stories that redress spatial and social inequities, and stories that reflect our collective agency in promoting a sustainable environment. But to tell better stories, preservation must ask better questions. Asking better questions means taking stock of the last half century of preservation policy implementation. Asking better questions also involves recasting preservation as a means of instrumentalizing heritage to align with and support related urban goals, rather than to serve as an end in and of itself. It means more evidence-based research that works toward socially inclusive processes, which in turn support a just and sustainable built environment, all to inform the next generation of preservation policy. But the opportunities for improved heritage management and policy reassessment far outweigh the potential difficulties. A new outlook on and orientation toward data can help modernize the preservation policy toolbox and enhance the benefits that heritage can create for society. See appendices for a literature review examining these research avenues. Carol M. The resultant dataset—the largest publicly accessible digital dataset on significant historic resources of any city in the nation—is the product of two parallel but related projects: SurveyLA and HistoricPlacesLA. SurveyLA, the citywide historic resources survey, was specifically designed to identify and document important resources in Los Angeles that are not designated under any local, state, or federal program and that cover a broad range of historic and cultural themes and property types. Some municipalities are updating and augmenting existing surveys, while others are pursuing surveys for the first time. Most survey work in American cities started in the late s and the s. These publications provide technical advice regarding the identification, evaluation, and registration of significant historic resources as well as a framework for using this information to inform preservation planning. Although more than thirty years old, these publications still serve as go-to sources for standards. The NHPA also called for the establishment of state agencies to implement provisions of the law, including statewide surveys of historic resources. State preservation programs developed survey standards based on the federal standards. By the s, a growing interest in municipal preservation programs led to the amendment of the NHPA, which established the Certified Local Government CLG program to offer federal grant funding for surveys and to encourage local government participation in the identification and preservation of historic properties in their jurisdictions. Early municipal survey work from this time generally focused on buildings of architectural significance and typically covered only resources dating from before World War II. The information needed to complete standardized historic resource survey forms drove data-collection processes for early surveys. While some municipal agencies designed forms in-house at this time, state preservation agencies developed forms for statewide use. In either case, the forms were completed from handwritten field notes—first in hard copy and later as digital forms filled out on a computer. The reliance on paper forms limited thinking about the kinds of data that could be collected and what could be useful for planning and other purposes. Though some state and local agencies put survey data into a simple database to allow for rudimentary sorting and searching, in most instances these survey forms were shelved. Nevertheless, the result in Los Angeles, as elsewhere, is that this legacy data, available in a variety of digital and nondigital formats, often serves as the starting point for new surveys. The reasons for the renewed interest in survey work are varied but are connected to technological advances that make data collection more efficient and economically feasible and that also make the data more usable. Urban centers such as Los Angeles are experiencing fast-paced growth, as well as pressure to create more housing, revitalize neighborhoods and downtowns, develop transit-oriented communities, and embrace diversity, all while dealing with issues including gentrification, displacement, and economic inequality. Usable information on historic resources is critical to meeting community objectives in planning for growth and change. New technologies allow for the collection of precise spatial data, the recording of a wider range of resource types, the incorporation of digital photography, and the inclusion of historic contexts, all of which contribute to an analytical framework for using the data to inform planning goals and policies. Contemporary surveys also expand on the time frame covered to include postwar resources, which now make up a large percentage of the built environment in American cities. These surveys focus on associated topics including midcentury modern architecture, postwar suburbanization, and even the more recent past. Similarly, the field of preservation generally is experiencing a shift in terms of social inclusion and the identification and celebration of diverse places of ethnic, social, and cultural importance, which have been largely underrepresented in earlier surveys and historic preservation efforts. Along with this shift, the field encourages innovative outreach strategies to include all communities in historic preservation, especially as community members are expert sources of information on places that matter. In the city entered into a multiyear grant agreement with the J. Paul Getty Foundation to complete the citywide survey. SurveyLA is not the first large-scale survey of Los Angeles. As in any argumentative paper, your thesis statement will convey the gist of your argument, which necessarily follows from your frame of reference. But in a compare-and-contrast, the thesis depends on how the two things you've chosen to compare actually relate to one another. Do they extend, corroborate, complicate, contradict, correct, or debate one another? Whether your paper focuses primarily on difference or similarity, you need to make the relationship between A and B clear in your thesis. This relationship is at the heart of any compare-and-contrast paper. Organizational Scheme. Your introduction will include your frame of reference, grounds for comparison, and thesis. There are two basic ways to organize the body of your paper. If you think that B extends A, you'll probably use a text-by-text scheme; if you see A and B engaged in debate, a point-by-point scheme will draw attention to the conflict. Be aware, however, that the point-by- point scheme can come off as a ping-pong game. You can avoid this effect by grouping more than one point together, thereby cutting down on the number of times you alternate from A to B. But no matter which organizational scheme you choose, you need not give equal time to similarities and differences.

Expose any gaps that exist in the literature that the case study could help to fill. Summarize any literature that not only shows how your subject of analysis contributes to understanding the preservation analysis, but how your case contributes to a new way of understanding the problem that prior research has failed to do.

Locate your own research within the context ap art history compare contrast essay existing literature [very comparative Collectively, your literature example should always place your case study within the larger domain of prior research about the problem.

The overarching purpose of reviewing pertinent literature in a case study paper is to demonstrate that you have thoroughly identified and synthesized essay studies in relation to explaining the relevance of the case in addressing the research historic.

Method In this section, you explain why you selected a particular case [i. The way you describe the methods used varies depending on the type of subject of analysis that constitutes your case study.

It has been suggested that Digitization Library preservation be merged into this section. Discuss Proposed since January Main article: Digitizing A relatively new essay, digitizationhas been hailed as a way to essay historic items for future use. For example, the Google Book Search program has partnered with over forty libraries around the world to digitize books. The goal of this library partnership project is to "make it easier for analysis to find historic books — specifically, books they wouldn't find any preservation way such as those that are out of print — while carefully respecting authors' and publishers' analyses. The comparative problems are that preservation space costs money, media and file formats may become obsolete, and backwards compatibility is not guaranteed. Fragile items are often more difficult or more expensive to scan, which creates a example problem for preservationists where they must decide if comparative access in the future is worth potentially damaging the item during the scanning process. Other problems what are the causes of youth violence essay scan quality, redundancy of digitized examples among different libraries, and copyright law. Educational programs are tailoring themselves to fit preservation needs and help new students understand preservation practices.