How Do I Use Citations For A Website In An Essay

Thesis 28.06.2019
For example: Ravitch argues that high schools are pressured to act as "social service centers, and they don't do that well" qtd. Note that, in most cases, a responsible researcher will attempt to find the original source, rather than citing an indirect source. Citing transcripts, plays, or screenplays Sources that take the form of a dialog involving two or more participants have special guidelines for their quotation and citation. Each line of dialog should begin with the speaker's name written in all capitals and indented half an inch. A period follows the name e. After the period, write the dialog. Each successive line after the first should receive an additional indentation. When another person begins speaking, start a new line with that person's name indented only half an inch. Repeat this pattern each time the speaker changes. You can include stage directions in the quote if they appear in the original source. Conclude with a parenthetical that explains where to find the excerpt in the source. Alcohol makes an early appearance in O'Neill's play. Pleadingly Give me a drink, Rocky. Harry said it was all right. God, I need a drink. Den grab it. It's right under your nose. He takes the bottle with both twitching hands and tilts it to his lips and gulps down the whiskey in big swallows. Citing non-print or sources from the Internet With more and more scholarly work published on the Internet, you may have to cite sources you found in digital environments. When creating in-text citations for electronic, film, or Internet sources, remember that your citation must reference the source on your Works Cited page. Sometimes writers are confused with how to craft parenthetical citations for electronic sources because of the absence of page numbers. Footnotes are notes placed at the bottom of a page. They cite references or comment on a designated part of the text above it. For example, say you want to add an interesting comment to a sentence you have written, but the comment is not directly related to the argument of your paragraph. In this case, you could add the symbol for a footnote. Then, at the bottom of the page you could reprint the symbol and insert your comment. Here is an example: This is an illustration of a footnote. See how it fits in the body of the text? When your reader comes across the footnote in the main text of your paper, he or she could look down at your comments right away, or else continue reading the paragraph and read your comments at the end. Because this makes it convenient for your reader, most citation styles require that you use either footnotes or endnotes in your paper. Some, however, allow you to make parenthetical references author, date in the body of your work. See our section on citation styles for more information. Footnotes are not just for interesting comments, however. Sometimes they simply refer to relevant sources -- they let your reader know where certain material came from or where they can look for other sources on the subject. To decide whether you should cite your sources in footnotes or in the body of your paper, you should ask your instructor or see our section on citation styles. Whenever possible, put the footnote at the end of a sentence, immediately following the period or whatever punctuation mark completes that sentence. Skip two spaces after the footnote before you begin the next sentence. If you must include the footnote in the middle of a sentence for the sake of clarity, or because the sentence has more than one footnote try to avoid this! Their training techniques are based on the research described above indicating that comprehension improves with exposure to non-native speech. Derwing et al. References Derwing, T. Teaching native speakers to listen to foreign-accented speech. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 23 4 , Thomas, H. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook 8th ed. The 8th edition of the MLA handbook highlights principles over prescriptive practices. Essentially, a writer will need to take note of primary elements in every source, such as author, title, etc. However, this guide will highlight a few concerns when citing digital sources in MLA style. Best Practices for Managing Online Sources Because online information can change or disappear, it is always a good idea to keep personal copies of important electronic information whenever possible. Downloading or even printing key documents ensures you have a stable backup. You can also use the Bookmark function in your web browser in order to build an easy-to-access reference for all of your project's sources though this will not help you if the information is changed or deleted. It is also wise to keep a record of when you first consult with each online source. It is not required to do so, but it is encouraged especially when there is no copyright date listed on a website. Because web addresses are not static i. However, MLA only requires the www. Many scholarly journal articles found in databases include a DOI digital object identifier. If you can find a permalink, use that instead of a URL. Use these in place of the p. Not every web page will provide all of the following information. Any version numbers available, including editions ed. Publisher information, including the publisher name and publishing date. Take note of any page numbers p. Date you accessed the material Date Accessed. While not required, saving this information it is highly recommended, especially when dealing with pages that change frequently or do not have a visible copyright date. Use the following format: Author. Place a period after the closing parentheses. If no date is provided for the specific content you're citing, use the abbreviation "n. Do not use the copyright date for the website itself. If you're citing several pages from the same website that were published in the same year, add a lower-case letter to the end of the year so you can differentiate them in your in-text citations. For example, you might have "a" and "b. Type a space after the period that follows the date, then type the title of the web page, which will usually appear as a header at the top of the page. Use sentence case, capitalizing only the first word and any proper nouns. Place a period at the end of the title. Cancer research. If the content you're citing is a stand-alone document, the title should be italicized. This will usually be the case if you're citing a PDF document that appears on a website. If you're not sure, use your best judgment in deciding whether to italicize it or not.

The authors claim that one cause of obesity in the United States is government-funded farm subsidies Franck et al. Corresponding Works Cited entry: Franck, Caroline, et al. Citing multiple works by the same author If you cite more than one work by an author, hook analytical essay examples a shortened title for the particular work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the others.

How do i use citations for a website in an essay

Put short titles of books in italics and short how of articles in quotation marks. Citing two citations by the same author: Lightenor has argued that computers are not useful tools for small children "Too Soon" 38though he has acknowledged how to refer to a book in an essay chicago that early exposure to computer use does lead to better small motor skill development in a child's second and third year "Hand-Eye Development" Citing two books by the same author: Murray states that writing is "a process" that "varies with our thinking style" Write to Learn 6.

Additionally, if the author's name is not mentioned in the sentence, format your essay with the for name followed by a comma, followed by a shortened title of the work, and, when appropriate, the page number s : Visual studies, because it is such a new essay, may be "too easy" Elkins, "Visual Studies" Citing multivolume works If you cite from different volumes of a multivolume work, always include the volume number followed by a colon.

Put a space after the colon, then provide the page number s. If you only cite from one volume, provide only the page number in parentheses. Citing the Bible In your first parenthetical citation, you want to make clear which Bible you're using and underline or italicize the titleas each version varies in its translation, followed by book do not italicize or underlinechapter, and website.

MLA Works Cited: Electronic Sources // Purdue Writing Lab

For example: Ezekiel saw "what seemed to be four living creatures," each with faces of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle New Jerusalem Bible, Ezek. Citing indirect sources Sometimes you may have to use an indirect source. An indirect source is a source cited within another source. For such indirect quotations, use "qtd. For example: Ravitch argues that high schools are pressured to act as "social service centers, and they don't do that well" qtd. Note that, in website cases, a use researcher will attempt to find the original source, rather than citing an essay topics about justice citation.

If you're not sure, use your best judgment in deciding whether to for it or not. Copy the full direct URL or permalink of the content you want to cite. Type the essays "Retrieved from," then past the URL into your entry. Do not place a period at the end of the URL. If the URL is overly citation, ask how instructor or supervisor if you can use a shortened link. Title of web page in sentence case. Retrieved from URL best way to start an application essay Use the author's name and year for in-text parenthetical citations.

APA uses author-year parenthetical at the end of any sentence in which you quote or paraphrase information from the website. The parenthetical citation goes inside the closing punctuation for the sentence. For example, you might write: "The Canadian Cancer Society noted that Canada is a global leader in clinical trials of cancer treatments.

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Your in-text citation should lead your reader to the corresponding entry in the website list. For sources with no date use n. Below are examples of using in-text citation with how pages. Web page with author: Role-play can help children learn techniques for coping with bullying Kraiser, Reference entry Kraizer, S. You should quote material when you believe the way the for author expresses an idea is the most effective means of communicating the point you want to essay.

If you use to borrow an citation from an author, but do not need his or her use words, you should try paraphrasing instead of quoting. My essay fruit grapes essay Often Should I Quote.

How of the citation, paraphrasing and summarizing your sources is sufficient but remember that you still have to cite them.

Most of the website, you can just identify a source and quote from it, as in the first example above. Sometimes, however, you will need to modify the words or format of the quotation in order to fit in your paper. Whenever for change the original words of your source, you must indicate that you have done so.

Place a period at the end of the title. Cancer research. If the content you're citing is a stand-alone document, the title should be italicized. This will usually be the case if you're citing a PDF document that appears on a website. If you're not sure, use your best judgment in deciding whether to italicize it or not. Copy the full direct URL or permalink of the content you want to cite. Type the words "Retrieved from," then past the URL into your entry. Do not place a period at the end of the URL. If the URL is overly long, ask your instructor or supervisor if you can use a shortened link. Title of web page in sentence case. Retrieved from URL 5 Use the author's name and year for in-text parenthetical citations. APA uses author-year parenthetical at the end of any sentence in which you quote or paraphrase information from the website. The parenthetical citation goes inside the closing punctuation for the sentence. For example, you might write: "The Canadian Cancer Society noted that Canada is a global leader in clinical trials of cancer treatments. If the web page has an individual author listed, type that author's last name first, followed by a comma, then their first name. If there is no individual author, use the name of the organization, company, or government agency that published the content as the author. Listing References What's a Bibliography? A bibliography is a list of all of the sources you have used in the process of researching your work. In general, a bibliography should include: the authors' names the titles of the works the names and locations of the companies that published your copies of the sources the dates your copies were published the page numbers of your sources if they are part of multi-source volumes OK, So What's an Annotated Bibliography? An annotated bibliography is the same as a bibliography with one important difference: in an annotated bibliography, the bibliographic information is followed by a brief description of the content, quality, and usefulness of the source. What Are Footnotes? Footnotes are notes placed at the bottom of a page. They cite references or comment on a designated part of the text above it. For example, say you want to add an interesting comment to a sentence you have written, but the comment is not directly related to the argument of your paragraph. In this case, you could add the symbol for a footnote. Then, at the bottom of the page you could reprint the symbol and insert your comment. Here is an example: This is an illustration of a footnote. See how it fits in the body of the text? When your reader comes across the footnote in the main text of your paper, he or she could look down at your comments right away, or else continue reading the paragraph and read your comments at the end. Because this makes it convenient for your reader, most citation styles require that you use either footnotes or endnotes in your paper. Some, however, allow you to make parenthetical references author, date in the body of your work. See our section on citation styles for more information. Footnotes are not just for interesting comments, however. Sometimes they simply refer to relevant sources -- they let your reader know where certain material came from or where they can look for other sources on the subject. To decide whether you should cite your sources in footnotes or in the body of your paper, you should ask your instructor or see our section on citation styles. Whenever possible, put the footnote at the end of a sentence, immediately following the period or whatever punctuation mark completes that sentence. Skip two spaces after the footnote before you begin the next sentence. If you must include the footnote in the middle of a sentence for the sake of clarity, or because the sentence has more than one footnote try to avoid this! Unknown Author Where you'd normally put the author's last name, instead use the first one, two, or three words from the title. Don't count initial articles like "A", "An" or "The". You should provide enough words to make it clear which work you're referring to from your Works Cited list. If the title in the Works Cited list is in italics, italicize the words from the title in the in-text citation. If the title in the Works Cited list is in quotation marks, put quotation marks around the words from the title in the in-text citation. Examples: "Nursing" 12 Repeated Use of Sources If you're using information from a single source more than once in succession i. Note: If using this simplified in-text citation creates ambiguity regarding the source being referred to, use the full in-text citation format. For every in-text citation in your paper, there must be a corresponding entry in your reference list. APA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the year of publication, for example: Field, For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: Field, , p. For sources such as websites and e-books that have no page numbers, use a paragraph number. More information on citing sources without pagination is given on the APA Style web page. Their training techniques are based on the research described above indicating that comprehension improves with exposure to non-native speech. Derwing et al.

Otherwise, you would be claiming the original author used words that he or she did not use. But be careful not to change too many words. You could accidentally change the meaning of the quotation and falsely claim the author said something they did not.

For example, let's say you want to quote from the following passage in an essay called "United Shareholders of America," by Jacob Weisberg: The citizen-investor serves his fellow citizens badly by his inclination to withdraw from the community.

Abbreviate all months with names that have more than 4 letters. Place a period at the end of the date. Accessed 14 Feb. Accessed Day Month Year. An MLA parenthetical citation typically includes the author's last name and the page number where the quoted or paraphrased information can be found. Since websites don't have page numbers, simply include the author's last name in the parenthetical, or the title of the web page if there is no author. Place your parenthetical inside the closing punctuation for the sentence. For example, you might write: "Award-winning baker Crystal Claymore wasn't afraid to give away all her secrets, sharing her favorite frosting techniques on her website. If an individual author is listed, type their last name first, followed by a comma, then their first and middle initials if a middle initial is given. Usually, the author of a website will be the government agency, organization, or business that owns the website. In that case, list the name of that entity followed by a period. If a publication date is provided next to the content you are citing, include that year in parentheses after the name of the author. Place a period after the closing parentheses. If no date is provided for the specific content you're citing, use the abbreviation "n. Do not use the copyright date for the website itself. If you're citing several pages from the same website that were published in the same year, add a lower-case letter to the end of the year so you can differentiate them in your in-text citations. For example, you might have "a" and "b. Type a space after the period that follows the date, then type the title of the web page, which will usually appear as a header at the top of the page. Use sentence case, capitalizing only the first word and any proper nouns. Place a period at the end of the title. Cancer research. You could accidentally change the meaning of the quotation and falsely claim the author said something they did not. For example, let's say you want to quote from the following passage in an essay called "United Shareholders of America," by Jacob Weisberg: The citizen-investor serves his fellow citizens badly by his inclination to withdraw from the community. He tends to serve himself badly as well. He does so by focusing his pursuit of happiness on something that very seldom makes people happy in the way they expect it to. When you quote, you generally want to be as concise as possible. Keep only the material that is strictly relevant to your own ideas. So here you would not want to quote the middle sentence, since it is repeated again in the more informative last sentence. However, just skipping it would not work -- the final sentence would not make sense without it. So, you have to change the wording a little bit. In order to do so, you will need to use some editing symbols. He tends to serve himself badly To make a substitution this important, however, you had better be sure that [money] is what the final phrase meant -- if the author intentionally left it ambiguous, you would be significantly altering his meaning. That would make you guilty of fraudulent attribution. In this case, however, the paragraph following the one quoted explains that the author is referring to money, so it is okay. As a general rule, it is okay to make minor grammatical and stylistic changes to make the quoted material fit in your paper, but it is not okay to significantly alter the structure of the material or its content. Quoting within Quotes When you have "embedded quotes," or quotations within quotations, you should switch from the normal quotation marks "" to single quotation marks '' to show the difference. The exact formatting requirements for long quotations differ depending on the citation style. In general, however, if you are quoting more than 3 lines of material, you should do the following: change the font to one noticeably smaller in a document that is mostly 12 point font, you should use a 10 point font, for example double indent the quotation -- that means adjusting the left and right margins so that they are about one inch smaller than the main body of your paper if you have this option in your word-processor, "left-justify" the text. That means make it so that each line begins in the same place, creating a straight line on the left side of the quotation, while the right side is jagged do NOT use quotation marks for the entire quotation -- the graphic changes you have made already changing the font, double indenting, etc. For quotations within that quotation, use normal quotation marks, not single ones you might want to skip 1. Yet it was not an easy task for him. This was due to his still lingering sense of pride and skepticism Although it stood with its head raised, even its yellowed wings had been eaten by insects. He thought of his entire life and felt tears and cruel laughter welling up inside. All that remained for him was madness or suicide. Listing References What's a Bibliography? A bibliography is a list of all of the sources you have used in the process of researching your work. In general, a bibliography should include: the authors' names the titles of the works the names and locations of the companies that published your copies of the sources the dates your copies were published the page numbers of your sources if they are part of multi-source volumes OK, So What's an Annotated Bibliography? An annotated bibliography is the same as a bibliography with one important difference: in an annotated bibliography, the bibliographic information is followed by a brief description of the content, quality, and usefulness of the source. JSTOR, doi According to Franck et al. The authors claim that one cause of obesity in the United States is government-funded farm subsidies Franck et al. Corresponding Works Cited entry: Franck, Caroline, et al. Citing multiple works by the same author If you cite more than one work by an author, include a shortened title for the particular work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the others. Put short titles of books in italics and short titles of articles in quotation marks. Citing two articles by the same author: Lightenor has argued that computers are not useful tools for small children "Too Soon" 38 , though he has acknowledged elsewhere that early exposure to computer games does lead to better small motor skill development in a child's second and third year "Hand-Eye Development" Citing two books by the same author: Murray states that writing is "a process" that "varies with our thinking style" Write to Learn 6. Additionally, if the author's name is not mentioned in the sentence, format your citation with the author's name followed by a comma, followed by a shortened title of the work, and, when appropriate, the page number s : Visual studies, because it is such a new discipline, may be "too easy" Elkins, "Visual Studies" Citing multivolume works If you cite from different volumes of a multivolume work, always include the volume number followed by a colon. Put a space after the colon, then provide the page number s. If you only cite from one volume, provide only the page number in parentheses. Citing the Bible In your first parenthetical citation, you want to make clear which Bible you're using and underline or italicize the title , as each version varies in its translation, followed by book do not italicize or underline , chapter, and verse. For example: Ezekiel saw "what seemed to be four living creatures," each with faces of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle New Jerusalem Bible, Ezek. Citing indirect sources Sometimes you may have to use an indirect source. An indirect source is a source cited within another source. For such indirect quotations, use "qtd. For example: Ravitch argues that high schools are pressured to act as "social service centers, and they don't do that well" qtd. Note that, in most cases, a responsible researcher will attempt to find the original source, rather than citing an indirect source. Citing transcripts, plays, or screenplays Sources that take the form of a dialog involving two or more participants have special guidelines for their quotation and citation. Each line of dialog should begin with the speaker's name written in all capitals and indented half an inch. A period follows the name e. After the period, write the dialog. Each successive line after the first should receive an additional indentation. When another person begins speaking, start a new line with that person's name indented only half an inch. Repeat this pattern each time the speaker changes. You can include stage directions in the quote if they appear in the original source. Conclude with a parenthetical that explains where to find the excerpt in the source. Alcohol makes an early appearance in O'Neill's play. Pleadingly Give me a drink, Rocky. Harry said it was all right. God, I need a drink. Den grab it. It's right under your nose. He takes the bottle with both twitching hands and tilts it to his lips and gulps down the whiskey in big swallows.

He tends to serve himself badly as well. He does so by focusing his pursuit of happiness on something that very seldom makes people happy in the way they expect it to. When you quote, you generally want to be as concise as possible.

T here are two ways to integrate others' research into your assignment: you can paraphrase or you can quote. Make sure to also include an in-text citation.

How do i use citations for a website in an essay

Make sure to include an in-text citation. About In-Text Citation In MLA, in-text citations are inserted in the body of your research paper to briefly document the source of your information. Neyhart, David.

In-text Citation - APA Quick Citation Guide - Library Guides at Penn State University

fiction essay thesis and outline Provide the author of the work, the title how the posting in quotation marks, the web site name in italics, for publisher, and the posting website.

Follow with the date of access. Include screen names as author names when author name is not known. Author or compiler name if available. Date of access. Salmar [Sal Hernandez]. Max Number of Rooms.

Accessed 5 Apr. Next, place the tweet in its for in quotations, inserting a essay after the tweet within the quotations. Include the date and time of posting, using the reader's time zone; separate the date and time with a comma and end with a period. Include the date accessed if you deem use. Include as citation descriptive information as necessary to help readers understand the type and nature of how source you are citing.

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Some, however, allow you to make parenthetical references author, date in the body of your work. As a general rule, it is okay to make minor grammatical and stylistic changes to make the quoted material fit in your paper, but it is not okay to significantly alter the structure of the material or its content. Reference entry American Psychological Association. Make sure to also include an in-text citation. All that remained for him was madness or suicide.

McGonigal, Jane. A Comment on a Website or Article List the username as the author. Use the phrase, Comment on, before the title. Use quotation marks around the article title. Name the publisher, date, time listed on near the commentand the URL.